History

Wars & Campaigns

Boer War
First World War

►►Western Front

►►►Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

►►Allied Offensive: 1916

►►►Allied Offensives: 1917

►►►German Offensive: 1918

►►►Advance to Victory: 1918

►►Siberia
Second World War
►►War Against Japan

►►Italian Campaign

►►►Sicily

►►►Southern Italy

►►►The Sangro and Moro

►►►Battles of the FSSF

►►►Cassino

►►►Liri Valley

►►►Advance to Florence

►►►Gothic Line

►►►Winter Lines
►►North-West Europe

►►►Normandy
►►►Southern France
►►►Channel Ports

►►►Scheldt
►►►Nijmegen Salient

►►►Rhineland

►►►Final Phase
Korean War
Cold War
Gulf War

Operations 

GAUNTLET Aug 1941

(Spitsbergen)

HUSKY Jul 1943

 (Sicily)

COTTAGE Aug 1943

 (Kiska)

TIMBERWOLF Oct 1943

(Italy)

OVERLORD Jun 1944

(Normandy)

VERITABLE Feb 1945

(Rhineland)

Battle Honours

Boer War

►Paardeberg

18 Feb 00

First World War
Western Front
Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

Ypres, 1915

22 Apr-25 May 15

Gravenstafel

22-23 Apr 15

St. Julien

24 Apr-4 May 15

Frezenberg

8-13 May 15

Bellewaarde

24-25 May 15

Festubert, 1915

15-25 May 15

Mount Sorrel

2-13 Jun 16

Allied Offensive: 1916

►Somme, 1916

1 Jul-18 Nov 16

►Albert

.1-13 Jul 16

►Razentin

.14-17 Jul 16

►Pozieres

.23 Jul-3 Sep 16

►Guillemont

.3-6 Sep 16

►Ginchy

.9 Sep 16

►Flers-Courcelette

.15-22 Sep 16

►Thiepval

.26-29 Sep 16

►Le Transloy

. 1-18 Oct 16

►Ancre Heights

1 Oct-11 Nov 16

►Ancre, 1916

13-18 Nov 16

Allied Offensives: 1917

►Arras 1917

8 Apr-4 May 17

Vimy, 1917

.9-14 Apr 17

Arleux

28-29 Apr 17

►Scarpe, 1917

.3-4 May17

►Hill 70

.15-25 Aug 17

►Messines, 1917

.7-14 Jun 17

►Ypres, 1917

..31 Jul-10 Nov 17

►Pilckem

31 Jul-2 Aug 17

►Langemarck, 1917

.16-18 Aug 17

►Menin Road

.20-25 Sep 17

►Polygon Wood

26 Sep-3 Oct 17

►Broodseinde

.4 Oct 17

►Poelcapelle

.9 Oct 17

►Passchendaele

.12 Oct 17

►Cambrai, 1917

20 Nov-3 Dec 17

German Offensive: 1918

►Somme, 1918

.21 Mar-5 Apr 18

►St. Quentin

.21-23 Mar 18

►Bapaume, 1918

.24-25 Mar 18

►Rosieres

.26-27 Mar 18

►Avre

.4 Apr 18

►Lys

.9-29 Apr 18

►Estaires

.9-11 Apr 18

►Messines, 1918

.10-11 Apr 18

►Bailleul

.13-15 Apr 18

►Kemmel

.17-19 Apr 18

Advance to Victory: 1918

Amiens

8-11 Aug 18

►Arras, 1918

.26 Aug-3 Sep 18

►Scarpe, 1918

26-30 Aug 18.

►Drocourt-Queant

.2-3 Sep 18

►Hindenburg Line

.12 Sep-9 Oct 18

►Canal du Nord

.27 Sep-2 Oct 18

►St. Quentin Canal .29 Sep-2 Oct 18
►Epehy

3-5 Oct 18

►Ypres, 1918

.8-9 Oct 18

►Valenciennes

.1-2 Nov 18

►Sambre

.4 Nov 18

►Pursuit to Mons .28 Sep-11Nov

Second World War

War Against Japan

South-East Asia

Hong Kong

 8-25 Dec 41

Italian Campaign

Battle of Sicily

Landing in Sicily 

   9-12 Jul 43

Grammichele 

15 Jul 43

Piazza Armerina

16-17 Jul 43

Valguarnera

17-19 Jul 43

Assoro 

  20-22 Jul 43

Leonforte

 21-22 Jul 43

Agira

24-28 Jul 43

Adrano 

29 Jul-7 Aug 43

Catenanuova

29-30 Jul 43

Regalbuto

29 Jul-3 Aug 43

Centuripe

  31 Jul-3 Aug 43

Troina Valley

 2-6 Aug 43

Pursuit to Messina

 2-17 Aug 43

 Southern Italy

Landing at Reggio

 3 Sep 43

Potenza 19-20 Sep 43
Motta Montecorvino 1-3 Oct 43
Termoli 3-6 Oct 43
Monte San Marco 6-7 Oct 43
Gambatesa 7-8 Oct 43
Campobasso 11-14 Oct 43
Baranello 17-18 Oct 43
Colle d'Anchise 22-24 Oct 43
Torella 24-27 Oct 43

The Sangro and Moro

The Sangro

19 Nov-3 Dec 43

Castel di Sangro

.23-24 Nov 43

The Moro

5-7 Dec 43

San Leonardo

8-9 Dec 43

The Gully

..10-19 Dec 43

Casa Berardi

 ..14-15 Dec 43

Ortona

20-28 Dec 43

San Nicola-San

.31 Dec 43

Tommaso

.
Point 59/ 29 Dec 43-

Torre Mucchia

4 Jan 44

Battles of the FSSF
Monte Camino

.5 Nov-9 Dec 43

Monte la Difensa-

2-8 Dec 43

 Monte la Remetanea

.
Hill 720

25 Dec 43

Monte Majo

3-8 Jan 44.

Radicosa

4 Jan 44

Monte Vischiataro

8 Jan 44

Anzio

22 Jan-22 May 44

Rome

.22 May-4 Jun 44

Advance

.22 May-22 Jun 44

to the Tiber

.
►Monte Arrestino

25 May 44

►Rocca Massima

27 May 44

►Colle Ferro

2 Jun 44

Cassino
►Cassino II

11-18 May 44

►Gustav Line

11-18 May 44

►Sant' Angelo in

13 May 44

Teodice

.
►Pignataro

14-15 May 44

Liri Valley
Liri Valley

18-30 May 44

►Hitler Line

18-24 May 44

►Aquino

18-24 May 44

►Melfa Crossing

24-25 May 44

►Ceprano

26-27 May 44

►Torrice Crossroads

30 May 44

Advance to Florence
►Advance

17 Jul-10 Aug 44

to Florence

.
►Cerrone

25 - 31 Aug 44

Trasimene Line
►Trasimene Line

20-30 Jun 44

►Sanfatucchio

20-21 Jun 44

►Gabbiano

1 Jul 44

►Arezzo

4-17 Jul 44

►Tuori

5 Jul 44

Gothic Line
►Gothic Line

25 Aug-22 Sep 44

►Monteciccardo

27-28 Aug 44

►Montecchio

30-31 Aug 44

►Point 204 (Pozzo Alto)

31 Aug 44

►Monte Luro

1 Sep 44

►Borgo Santa Maria

1 Sep 44

►Tomba di Pesaro

1-2 Sep 44

►Coriano

3-15 Sep 44

►Lamone Crossing

2-13 Sep 44

Winter Lines
►Rimini Line

14-21 Sep 44

►San Martino-

14-18 Sep 44

San Lorenzo

.
►San Fortunato

18-20 Sep 44

►Casale

23-25 Sep 44

►Sant' Angelo

11-15 Sep 44

 in Salute

.
►Bulgaria Village

13-14 Sep 44

►Cesena

15-20 Sep 44

►Pisciatello

16-19 Sep 44

►Savio Bridgehead

20-23 Sep 44

►Monte La Pieve

13-19 Oct 44

►Monte Spaduro

19-24 Oct 44

►Monte San Bartolo

11-14 Nov 44

►Capture of Ravenna

3-4 Dec 44

►Naviglio Canal

12-15 Dec 44

►Fosso Vecchio

16-18 Dec 44

►Fosso Munio

19-21 Dec 44

►Conventello-

2-6 Jan 45

Comacchio

.
►Granarolo

3-5 Jan 44

Northwest Europe
Dieppe

19 Aug 42

Battle of Normandy
Normandy Landing

6 Jun 44

Authie

7 Jun 44

Putot-en-Bessin

8 Jun 44

Bretteville

8-9 Jun 44

       -l'Orgueilleuse .
Le Mesnil-Patry

11 Jun 44

Carpiquet

4-5 Jul 44

Caen

4-18 Jul 44

The Orne (Buron)

8-9 Jul 44

Bourguébus Ridge

18-23 Jul 44

Faubourg-de-

18-19 Jul 44

       Vaucelles .
St. André-sur-Orne

19-23 Jul 44

Maltôt

22-23 Jul 44

Verrières Ridge-Tilly--

25 Jul 44

         la-Campagne .
►Falaise

7-22 Aug 44

►Falaise Road

7-9 Aug 44

►Quesnay Road

10-11 Aug 44

Clair Tizon

11-13 Aug 44

►The Laison

14-17 Aug 44

►Chambois

18-22 Aug 44

►St. Lambert-sur-

19-22 Aug 44

       Dives

.

►Dives Crossing

17-20 Aug 44

Forêt de la Londe

27-29 Aug 44

The Seine, 1944

25-28 Aug 44

Southern France
Southern France

15-28 Aug 44

Channel Ports
Dunkirk, 1944

8-15 Sep 44

Le Havre

1-12 Sep 44

Moerbrugge

8-10 Sep 44

Moerkerke

13-14 Sep 44

Boulogne, 1944

17-22 Sep 44

Calais, 1944

25 Sep-1 Oct 44

Wyneghem

21-22 Sep 44

Antwerp-Turnhout

   24-29 Sep 44

Canal

.

The Scheldt

The Scheldt

1 Oct-8 Nov 44

Leopold Canal

6-16 Oct-44

►Savojaards Platt

9-10 Oct 44

Breskens Pocket

11 Oct -3 Nov 44

►Woensdrecht

1-27 Oct 44

►The Lower Maas

20 Oct -7 Nov 44

►South Beveland

 24-31 Oct 44

Walcheren

31 Oct -4 Nov 44

Causeway

.

Nijmegen Salient
Ardennes

Dec 44-Jan 45

Kapelsche Veer

31 Dec 44-

.

21Jan 45

The Roer

16-31 Jan 45

Rhineland
The Rhineland

8 Feb-10 Mar 45

►The Reichswald

8-13 Feb 45

►Waal Flats

8-15 Feb 45

►Moyland Wood

14-21 Feb 45

►Goch-Calcar Road

19-21 Feb 45

►The Hochwald

26 Feb-

.

4 Mar 45

►Veen

6-10 Mar 45

►Xanten

8-9 Mar 45

Final Phase
The Rhine

23 Mar-1 Apr 45

►Emmerich-Hoch

28 Mar-1 Apr 45

Elten

.
►Twente Canal

2-4 Apr 45

Zutphen

6-8 Apr 45

Deventer

8-11 Apr 45

Arnhem, 1945

12-14 Apr 45

Apeldoorn

11-17 Apr 45

Groningen

13-16 Apr 45

Friesoythe

14 Apr 45

►Ijselmeer

15-18 Apr 45

Küsten Canal

17-24 Apr 45

Wagenborgen

21-23 Apr 45

Delfzijl Pocket

23 Apr-2 May 45

Leer

28-29 Apr 45

Bad Zwischenahn

23 Apr-4 May 45

Oldenburg

27 Apr-5 May 45

Korean War
Kapyong

21-25 Apr 51

Domestic Missions

FLQ Crisis

International Missions

ICCS            Vietnam 1973

MFO                 Sinai 1986-

Peacekeeping

UNMOGIP

India 1948-1979

UNTSO

 Israel 1948-    ....

UNEF

Egypt 1956-1967

UNOGIL

Lebanon 1958    ....

ONUC

 Congo 1960-1964

UNYOM

Yemen 1963-1964

UNTEA

W. N. Guinea 1963-1964

UNIFCYP

 Cyprus 1964-    ....

DOMREP

D. Republic 1965-1966

UNIPOM

Kashmir 1965-1966

UNEFME

Egypt 1973-1979

UNDOF

Golan 1974-    ....

UNIFIL

 Lebanon 1978    ....

UNGOMAP

Afghanistan 1988-90

UNIIMOG

Iran-Iraq 1988-1991

UNTAG

Namibia 1989-1990

ONUCA

C. America 1989-1992

UNIKOM

Kuwait 1991    ....

MINURSO

W. Sahara 1991    ....

ONUSAL

El Salvador 1991    ....

UNAMIC

Cambodia 1991-1992

UNAVEM II

Angola 1991-1997

UNPROFOR

Yugosla. 1992-1995

UNTAC

Cambodia 1992-1993

UNOSOM

Somalia 1992-1993

ONUMOZ

Mozambiq. 1993-1994

UNOMUR

 Rwanda 1993    ....

UNAMIR

Rwanda 1993-1996

UNMIH

Haiti 1993-1996

UNMIBH

Bosnia/Herz.1993-1996

UNMOP

Prevlaka 1996-2001

UNSMIH

Haiti 1996-1997

MINUGUA

Guatemala 1994-1997

UNTMIH

Haiti 1997    ....

MIPONUH

 Haiti 1997    ....

MINURCA

C.Afr.Rep. 1998-1999

INTERFET

E. Timor 1999-2000

UNAMSIL

Sie. Leone 1999-2005

UNTAET

E. Timor 1999-2000

Exercises

 

Channel Ports

The "Channel Ports" were a number of defended French cities along the English Channel. The term "Channel Ports" is being used on this website to refer to all fighting experienced by the Canadian Army in the period between the Battle of Normandy and the Battle of the Scheldt, during the month of September 1944.

Strategic Background

August 1944 saw the end of the Battle of Normandy, and the achievement of a major objective of Operation OVERLORD - reaching the line of the River Seine. This objective was met in advance of the original D+90 deadline (4 September 1944). The landings in Southern France had placed the US 7th Army (soon to be joined by a French Army to create the 6th Army Group) on the extreme right flank of the Allies' "broad front" advance. At the start of September 1944, they were advancing on the Belfort Gap. To their left, the US 3rd Army advanced on Metz and the Saar region. The 1st US Army, to their left, drove on the German city of Aachen and the Ardennes Forest in Belgium, and to their left the British 2nd Army set its sights on Belgium. On the far left flank of the Allied advance was the First Canadian Army.

First Canadian Army had not yet appreciated German intentions re: the Channel Ports - air reconnaissance actually reported Boulogne, Calais and Dunkirk "deserted".1 The Germans themselves did not have a firm intention until 4 September, when Hitler personally ordered the Channel Ports defended. While he had long intended certain French ports be designated "fortresses", notably U-Boat pens and deep water ports in Brittany that would have been of great use to the Allies, the policy was applied wastefully to lesser ports and even the Channel Islands, where a great many German soldiers were to languish until the end of the war.

However, in early September 1944, this policy made military sense, and Allied military operations - as well as logistical concerns - were affected by the need to reduce these German fortresses. Le Havre, Boulogne and Dunkirk were all included on this list. Hitler's directive of 4 September 1944 read in part:

Because of the breakthrough of enemy tank forces toward Antwerp, it has become very important for the further progress of the war to hold the fortresses of Boulogne and Dunkirk, the Calais area, Walcheren Island with Flushing harbour, the bridgehead at Antwerp, and the Albert Canal position as far as Maastricht.

For this purpose the 15th Army is to bring the garrisons of Boulogne and Dunkirk and the Calais defensive area up to strength by means of full units.

The defensive strength of the fortresses is to be increased by means of additional ammunition supplies from the supplies of the 15th Army, especially anti-tank ammunition, by bringing up provisions of all kinds from the country, and by evacuating the entire population.

The commanders of the Calais defence area and of Walcheren Island receive the same authority as a fortress commander...2

 

As early as 3 September 1944 the need to clear the Scheldt Estuary was recognized by the Allies. Admiral Sir Bertam Ramsay - Naval Commander-in-Chief under Eisenhower at SHAEF - outlined in a telegram to Eisenhower, Montgomery (21st Army Group), and the Admiralty that "It is essential that if Antwerp and Rotterdam are to be opened quickly...It will be necessary for coastal batteries to be captured before approach channels to the river routes can be established."3

After Normandy, the British 2nd Army made spectacular progress, capturing Amiens on 31 August 1944, crossing the Somme River, and, moving at a rate of 60 miles a day, capturing Antwerp with port facilities intact on 4 September 1944. Unfortunately, the Scheldt Estuary - fifty miles of waterways leading to Antwerp - remained in German hands. At the time of Antwerp's capture, however, the Germans were disorganized and the estuary defences only lightly held. With Antwerp's vital port facilities taken (with the major ports on the northern Channel coast still in German hands, supplies were still arriving on the Continent in Normandy, facilitating the need to truck them forward to the now rapidly moving front), the decision not to press on and take the Scheldt Estuary would be controversial.

Nothing was done on the ground, either to block the escape of the 15th German Army, or to secure the banks of the Scheldt from Antwerp to the sea. The explanation for the failure was simple. Montgomery saw a gap developing between the 15th German Army retiring north-eastwards and the survivors of the 7th Army moving east to the Siegfried Line. He ordered Dempsey's (British) Second Army to drive forward with all strength and speed to seize the bridges over the Rhine between Wesel and Arnhem before the enemy could establish a defensive line. Airborne divisions would open the way over the main rivers which intervened....Crerar's (First Canadian Army) was to clear the coastal belt, then remain in the area of Bruges-Calais until there were enough supplies for it to be employed further forward. Montgomery gave neither of his army commanders the task of opening Antwerp."4

First Canadian Army in September 1944

The First Canadian Army would not have the opportunity to clear the Scheldt in September 1944, for the Canadians were acting under a directive by 21st Army Group, promulgated on 26 August 1944 and ordering the capture of Le Havre and Dieppe, and the destruction of German coastal defences all the way to Bruges. I British Corps was ordered to Le Havre and II Canadian Corps was directed to take Le Treport, Dieppe and to cross the Somme at Abbeville.

The Ports

Hitler's directive had come too late for Dieppe, which fell to the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division without a fight on 1 September 1944. While the 2nd British Army made its spectacular advances, First Canadian Army focused its attention on several channel ports and several major battles.

  • Moerbrugge occupied two battalions and an armoured regiment of the 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division from 8-10 September 1944.

  • The fighting for Dunkirk was a major action involving the entire 2nd Canadian Infantry Division from 8-15 September 1944.

  • I British Corps took Le Havre in Operation ASTONIA from 10-12 September 1944. A squadron of Canadian armoured carriers participated in the assault, which netted 11,000 German prisoners for the loss of 338 British casualties. The docks were largely destroyed during the fighting, and the port was not opened to shipping until 9 Oct 1944, and allocated as a supply base for US forces on the Continent.5

 

By 10 September, the importance of clearing the Scheldt and opening the port of Antwerp was being stressed by General Eisenhower to Field Marshal Montgomery. The Combined Chiefs of Staff, meeting at Quebec, also sent Eisenhower a telegram on 12 September 1944, reminding him of the importance of Antwerp. Montgomery asked Crerar if he could accomplish it. By the 13th, Montgomery was stressing a sense of urgency in clearing Boulogne, Dunkirk and Calais, in addition to clearing the Scheldt. "He hoped that Crerar could carry out all these tasks simultaneously. Given their nature and the size of First Canadian Army, the Field Marshal was being unrealistic."6

The Canadian Army would have its hands full with three major operations during late September 1944:

  • Boulogne was taken by the 8th and 9th Canadian Brigades of the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division from 17-22 September 1944.

  • Calais surrendered its 7,500 man garrison by 1 Oct 1944, for a cost of 300 Canadian casualties from the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division.

  • While the 2nd and 3rd Divisions fought along the coast, the 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division was advancing into the area just south of the Scheldt Estuary along with the Polish 1st Armoured Division. Crossing the Ghent Canal, the Poles concentrated on the area between the Terneuzen Canal and the Scheldt, with the 4th Canadian Armoured to the left, from Moerbrugge to Breskens. An attempted crossing of the Leopold Canal by the Algonquin Regiment cost 158 casualties.7

 

Strategic Objectives

There is evidence to suggest that Field Marshal Montgomery was focusing the operations of his armies on the broad strategic goal of winning the war by crossing the Rhine with his single thrust concept. While the Canadians were engaged in these tasks along the Channel coast, Allied resources were concentrated into one dramatic effort to cross the Rhine River, Operation MARKET-GARDEN, launched on 17 September 1944. Canadian involvement in this Operation was minimal, and Canadian engineers played a small part in the evacuation of some of the paratroopers of the British 1st Airborne Division. Several CANLOAN officers did take part in the fighting at Arnhem.

However, the securing of the Channel Ports were not unrelated to the airborne offensive in the Netherlands:

While his staff worked out the details of Operation COMET and the much larger version, MARKET GARDEN, Montgomery signalled to Crerar asking for an estimate of the chances of an early capture of Boulogne. "I want Boulogne badly," he told Crerar. By 9 September Monty had convinced himself that "with one good Pas de Calais port," additional transport and increased airlift he could make it to the Ruhr. Montgomery knew that the German 15th Army's withdrawal across the Westerschelde had begun and Ultra gave him the details of Hitler's orders to garrison the Channel ports, the Breskens Pocket and Walcheren Island as "fortresses" to be defended until the last man but he was unwilling to allow these problems to interfere with his grand scheme to advance into Germany.8

 

North from Antwerp

The final two actions described in this section of the website could also be considered part of the Battle of the Scheldt.

Fighting at Wyneghem by the 5th Canadian Brigade on 21-22 September 1944 created a bridgehead over the Albert Canal, east of Antwerp. Fighting to expand the bridgehead occupied the 2nd Division from 24-29 September 1944, recognized by the Battle Honour "Antwerp-Turnhout Canal."

The line of the Antwerp-Turnhout Canal was held by the German LXVII Korps under Otto Sponheimer, consisting of three divisions, the 711th, 719th, and 346th. The first attempt to force the canal was on 23 September by the 6th Canadian Brigade. Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal and the South Saskatchewan Regiment attempted to cross by boats in front of Lochtenberg; the FMR made it across but were held up by heavy MG fire while the SSR could not make a crossing due to snipers and MGs. A second attempt under cover of smoke later in the day got the SSR across and pressing onto Lochtenberg itself. Heavy counter-attacks forced the FMR back across the canal, and the SSR were forced to withdraw. The brigade had suffered 113 casualties in the day long operation. On 28 September 1944, another attempt to cross the canal was made by the brigade, but this attack was also rebuffed.

The decision was made to move the 2nd Canadian Division through a bridgehead created on the canal by the British 49th Division. On 28 September 1944, the 5th Brigade went into action, extending the bridgehead towards St. Leonard. The Cameron Highlanders of the 6th Brigade lend assistance, but movement was slow, and Brecht, less than two miles from St. Leonard, did not fall until 1 October 1944.


Click to Enlarge

Results

While the month of September 1944 saw Allied armies liberating almost all of France, with US soldiers approaching the German border, few port facilities of significance had been wrested from the Germans. Dieppe's port was in disrepair and facilities there were not large. Other captured ports like Boulogne and Calais were badly damaged during the liberation, and other ports continued to hold out - and would, in fact, remain in German hands until May 1945. These ports were "masked" by Allied units as the armies moved on.

Significantly, First Canadian Army also captured a large proportion of German V2 Rocket sites, which had been sending high-explosives into the United Kingdom and causing significant numbers of civilian casualties.

Battle Honours

The following Battle Honours were granted for the fighting between the Battle of Normandy and the Battle of the Scheldt:

  • Moerbrugge

  • Dunkirk, 1944

  • Le Havre

  • Boulogne, 1944

  • Calais, 1944

  • Moerkerke

  • Wyneghem

  • Antwerp-Turnhout Canal

Notes

  1. Stacey, C.P. Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War: Volume III: The Victory Campaign. p.326

  2. Ibid, p.301.

  3. Williams, Jeffery The Long Left Flank: The Hard Fought Way to the Reich, 1944-1945 (Stoddart Publishing Co. Ltd, Toronto, ON, 1988) ISBN 0773721940 pp.82-83
  4. Ibid, p.82
  5. McKay, A. Donald Gaudeamus Igitur: Therefore Rejoice: The Campaigns of the Canadian Army in the Second World War (Bunker to Bunker Books, Calgary, AB, 2005) ISBN 1894255534 p.185
  6. Williams, Ibid, p.83
  7. McKay, Ibid, p.194
  8. Copp, Terry "Canadian Operational Art: The Siege of Boulogne and Calais" Canadian Army Journal Issue 9.1 Spring 2006

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