Nations Temporary Commission in Korea (UNTCOK) (1947-1948). Canada
sent two United Nations military observers (UNMOs) to South Korea to
observe and supervise elections.
Nations Command Korea (1950 – 1953). This mission was established
under the United Nations Security Council Resolution of 7 Jul 1950.
Canada contributed 6,146 personnel from the three elements throughout
the mission's duration, making up involvement in the Korean War.
International Commission for Supervision and Control (ICSC)
(1954-1974). The ICSC was established under the General Agreement of
1954, and was mandated to supervise the withdrawal of French forces
and monitor cross-border infiltration in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam.
The Canadian Forces initially contributed 133 military observers to
the mission. This number was reduced to 20 in 1973.
International Commision of Control and Supervision (ICCS) –
Vietnam (1973-1974). This mission followed the Paris Peace Treaty of
1972, and monitored the cease-fire and return of prisoners in Vietnam.
Canada participated in this mission during 1973 and contributed a
warship and military observers, totalling 248 personnel.
Multinational Force and Observers
Team Nigeria (OTN) (1968-1970). The OTN was mandated to ensure the
observance of the cease-fire between the Government of Nigeria and
Biafran rebels. Canada provided two military observers for the
of the Secretary-General in Afghanistan and Pakistan (OSGAP) (15
March 1990-January 1995). Canada contributed one military advisor to
OSGAP until 1992.
Nations Observer Group for the Verification of the Elections in Haiti
(ONUVEH) (November 1990- February 1991). Canada provided eleven
UNMOs to this mission authorized by the UN General Assembly.
Operation FRICTION/SCIMITAR/SCALPEL/ACCORD/FLAG (Liberation of
Kuwait) (1990-1991). Canada contributed air, naval and medical units,
including a field hospital and an infantry unit for security, to the
multinational mission in the Arabian Gulf region. Some 6,600 Canadian
Forces personnel were deployed in operations before, during and after
hostilities. This mission was to force Iraqi forces out of Kuwait
under the authority of several UN Security Council Resolutions taken
under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. This marked Canada's
participation in the Gulf War.
Community Monitor Mission (1991)
Interdiction Force (MIF)– Red Sea (1992). Canada provided one
naval vessel with 250 personnel in support of the post-Gulf War
embargo of Iraq (Operation Barrier).
Nations Committee of Experts (UNCOE) (1992-1994). At any given
time, Canada was providing up to seven legal and military police
officers to UNCOE in Operation Justice, to report on the evidence of
grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and other violations of
international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the
Community Monitoring Mission in the Former Yugoslavia (ECMMY) (Jan
1992-Aug 1995). The ECMMY was established to monitor the cease-fire
agreed upon in September 1991, and following the signing of a
memorandum of understanding between the European Community and the
Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
Approximately 48 Canadian military personnel participated in the
mission as observers and monitors.
Embargo Enforcement (1993-1994). Canada contributed a naval
contingent of approximately 250 personnel (Operation Forward Action)
in support of UN Security Council resolutions.
Observer Group Dominican Republic (1994). Canada provided up to 15
observers to this mission, which was sanctioned under Security Council
Provision of Humanitarian Aid to Rwanda (1994). Canada provided up
to 247 military personnel to this non-UN mission for the purpose of
providing medical assistance and potable water to refugees.
Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
Peacekeeping Mission Vienna-Nagorno-Karabakh (1995-1996). The OSCE
mission was mandated to support the peace proposal being negotiated by
the Minsk Group (Belarus, Czech Republic, France, Italy, Russia,
Sweden, Turkey and the United States) between Armenia and Azerbaijan
over the disputed area of Nagorno-Karabakh. Canada contributed three
staff officers to the mission (Operation Nylon).
Implementation Force (IFOR) (1995-1996). Following UN Security
Council Resolution 1031 of 15 December 1995, and pursuant to the
Dayton Peace Accords, IFOR was established to take the place of
UNPROFOR. Canada contributed 1029 military personnel (Operation
Alliance) and participated in this mission throughout its duration.
Enforcement of the United Nations Embargo of the Former Republic of
Yugoslavia (1993-1996). Acting under authority of UN Security
Council Resolutions 713, 757 and 820, Canada provided one frigate with
210 personnel in 1996 for the enforcement of maritime sanctions
against the Former Republic of Yugoslavia (Operation SHARPGUARD).
Enforcement of the No-Fly Zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina
(1993-1995). Canada contributed up to 13 personnel (Operation Deny
Flight) in 1995 to serve as crew members aboard Airborne Warning and
Control Aircraft (AWACS).
Interdiction Force (MIF) – Arabian Gulf (1995). Canada provided
one naval vessel, HMCS Calgary, in support of MIF operations in the
Arabian Gulf (Operation TRANQUILITY).
Great Lakes Multinational Force (1996). The Canadian-led
Multinational Force was mandated, under Security Council resolution
1080, to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian supplies to the
refugees in eastern Zaire by humanitarian agencies, and to facilitate
the return of refugees to Rwanda. Canada contributed up to 354
personnel to the mission (Operation Assurance).
Airlift (1992-1996). Under the authority of UN Security Council
resolutions 981 and 1025, the airlift of humanitarian materiel was
provided to Sarajevo. In 1996 Canada contributed CC-130 aircraft and
ground crew, numbering approximately 48 personnel, to this mission
(Operation Air Bridge).
Interdiction Force (MIF) – Arabian Gulf (1997). Canada contributed
one naval vessel, HMCS REGINA, in support of MIF operations in the
Arabian Gulf (Operation Prevention).
Coalition Deployment to the Arabian Gulf (February 1998). Canada
contributed one frigate, HMCS Toronto, and two CC-130 aircraft to the
US-led multinational force, which deployed to the Arabian Gulf to
force Iraqi compliance with Security Council resolutions.
Task Force Central America (JTFCAM) (November-December 1998). In
response the humanitarian crisis in Central America caused by
Hurricane Mitch, the Canadian Forces deployed the Disaster Assistance
Response Team (DART) to Honduras provided humanitarian airlift to the
region. The Canadian Forces also deployed four CH-146 Griffon
helicopters to the relief operation. There were approximately 290
Canadian Forces personnel in theatre at the peak of the operation
Air Contingent Bosnia-Hercegovina (August-November 1997). As part
of the effort to enforce the Dayton Peace Accords, Canada contributed
CF-18s and 112 military personnel to provide tactical fighter support
Air Component in MAMDRIM – Op BISON (February 1997 – February
1998). Canada deployed a 14-person Airlift Control Centre (ALCC) to
Rimini, Italy, to provide intra-theatre movement for personnel and
equipment in support of SFOR in Bosnia. The tasks of the Canadian
Component were to provide pre-mission weather/intelligence briefings,
flight planning, scheduling, passenger/freight handling and aircraft
Diplomatic Observer Mission/Verification Mission (KDOM/KVM)
(October 1998 - May 1999). Canada provided 23 personnel to KDOM and
KVM, which operated under the auspices of the Organisation for
Security and Co-operation in Europe. The purpose of the mission was to
assist with the verification of compliance with the October 1998
Holbrooke Agreement. Canadian military personnel deployed to the KVM
were withdrawn from the Balkans in May 1999.
Extraction Force (December 1998 – April 1999). Canada contributed
58 military personnel to support the establishment and sustainment of
the NATO Extraction Force Headquarters in Kumanovo, FYROM. The task
force included an airfield engineer flight, a medical and dental team,
as well as headquarters staff personnel.
Interdiction Force (MIF) – Arabian Gulf (June 1998 – December
1998). Canada contributed one naval vessel, HMCS OTTAWA, in support of
MIF operations in the Arabian Gulf to compel Iraq to comply with the
inspection and destruction of its weapons of mass destruction
Verification Co-ordination Centre (January 1999 – April 1999). The
Canadian Forces contributed six military police, one billeting NCM and
one staff officer to the Kosovo Verification Co-ordination Centre in
Humanitarian Airlift in Support of Kosovar Refugees (April 1999).
As part of the humanitarian effort in support of Kosovar refugees in
the Balkans, the Canadian Forces provided two CC-130 aircraft and
ground support personnel to the Canadian International Development
Agency (CIDA) for the movement of humanitarian material from Norway
and Denmark to Albania and Macedonia.
Task Force Serdivan (JTFS) (Aug – Oct 1999). In response to the
humanitarian disaster resulting from the earthquake in north-western
Turkey, the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces
deployed the Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART). The DART
provided primary medical care and water purification services, along
with technical advice in the area of Serdivan. About 200 Canadian
Forces personnel participated in the mission. (Operation Torrent)
Nations Mine Action Co-ordination Centre in Kosovo (UNMACC) (Jun
1999 – Dec 1999). One officer and three non-commissioned officers
served with the United Nations Mine Action Co-ordination Centre in
Kosovo. These personnel returned to Canada when UNMACC's work ceased
for the winter months.
Interdiction Operations (MIO) – Arabian Gulf (June 1999 – December
1999). Canada contributed one naval vessel, HMCS REGINA, in support of
MIO operations in the Arabian Gulf.
Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) (April 1991 – December 1999).
UNSCOM was charged with the inspection and destruction of Iraq's
ballistic missiles as well as its chemical, nuclear and biological
facilities. Up to 12 Canadian Forces specialists were authorised to
participate in UNSCOM at any given time. In total, Canada contributed
over 100 personnel to UNSCOM operations. UNSCOM activities in Iraq
were put on hold after air strikes were launched against that country
in December 1998. A new organisation, the United Nations Monitoring,
Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) was created on 17
December 1999 by Security Council Resolution 1284 (1999) to take over
the duties of UNSCOM. The two Canadian Forces personnel who had been
provided to UNSCOM Headquarters in New York were replaced by civilians
under UNMOVIC and returned to Canada the spring of 2000.
Mine Action Centre (CMAC). (1993-June 2000) Canadian Forces
members deployed to Cambodia in 1993 to help establish and co-ordinate
mine-clearance operations that are now carried out under civilian
supervision through CMAC - a United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
funded mine-clearance school. (see also UNTAC)
Kosovo Force (KFOR). (1999- 2000) Canada's original commitment to
the NATO-led KFOR was approximately 1450 personnel, including an
infantry battle group, a reconnaissance squadron, eight helicopters
and an engineer contingent. A small number of Canadian Forces officers
also served in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. In addition,
Canadian Forces personnel supported humanitarian efforts in Albania.
In November 1999, the Canadian Forces rationalized their contributions
to the Balkans by significantly reducing the commitment to KFOR and
increasing responsibility in SFOR. (Ops Kinetic, Palladium, Echo)
Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo (UNMIK) (June 1999-Aug
2002). UNMIK was created by Security Council Resolution 1244 (10 June
1999) to assist in the restoration of the social and civil
infrastructure, as detailed in the Secretary General's initial report
(S/1999/672). Canadian Forces officers were posted to UNMIK to help
ensure close coordination between the civilian component and the
international security presence (KFOR). (Op Quadrant)