Enemies

 The Triple Alliance

1914-1918

 The Axis

1939-1945

Formations

  Infanterie Division 70

  Infanterie Division 84

  Infanterie Division 346
Commanders

►►Wilhelm Mohnke
 Warsaw Pact

1955-1991

The Axis

Canada, as one of the Allied nations during the Second World War, was opposed by a group of nations referred to as the Axis Powers.

Nations of the Alliance

The three main Axis nations, Germany, Italy and Japan, referred to their relationship as the "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis". All three nations were militaristic societies with imperial ambitions and all three waged aggressive and militarily unprovoked wars with their neighbours.

Other nations became associated with the Axis, either by treaty, agreement or by some form of annexation/subjugation.

Mussolini and Hitler in Münich, June 1940. Mussolini, General Jodl, Adolf Hitler, and General Keitel. Mussolini would be executed in early 1945, Hitler committed suicide in April 1945, and both Jodl and Keitel were tried at Nuremberg and hanged in 1946.

Partners in the Axis

The actual term "Axis" was initiated by Benito Mussolini, ruler of Fascist Italy, when in Nov 1936 he spoke of a Rome-Berlin axis, the result of a treaty of friendship signed between Italy and Nazi Germany. The treaty, signed 25 Oct 1936, led Mussolini to declare that the two nations would form an "axis" around which the rest of Europe would revolve. Italy's alliance with Germany had been brought about after the League of Nations opposed Italian imperialism in Abyssinia. Germany had supported Italy in that venture.

In May 1939, an official alliance was created with the "Pact of Steel". On 27 Sep 1940, the alliance extended to the Empire of Japan, with the signing of the Tripartite Treaty.

Germany

Mussolini, General Jodl, Adolf Hitler, and General Keitel. Mussolini would be executed in early 1945, Hitler committed suicide in Apr 1945, and both Jodl and Keitel were tried at Nuremberg and hanged in 1946.

The Second World War may be described as Hitler's War; he gained supreme power over the German people, largely through democratic means, and established himself as supreme commander of the military through a series of cunning political maneuvers. For the German military, who had a long-standing tradition of not involving themselves in politics, there was simply no choice but to follow the orders of their Führer. Hitler's surface aim was to establish a unified German state, taking back territories ceded by the harsh Treaty of Versailles after the First World War. His ultimate goal was to eliminate what he termed the "Jewish race" (defining Jews racially in addition to just religious practice) and establish Lebensraum (living room) for the German people, who he also defined racially as "Aryans". Domination of eastern Europe was the means to these goals.

Hitler's ultimate problem for his military would be conquering the Soviet Union, pushing Germany's borders as far east as possible, to at the least keep Soviet airpower away from German territory and that of its allies, such as the rich oilfields of Romania.

As for the nations that followed Germany into what was later billed an "anti-Bolshevik crusade", there were many factors, as described briefly in the various nationality sections below. In summary, we can see that many of the central and eastern European nations had many reasons to want to participate; reliance on Germany for security, desire to recover lost territory from the Soviet Union, fear or hatred of communism, desire to be free of Soviet rule, and the opportunistic notion that booty might be theirs for the taking by assisting in the destruction of the USSR. Many also participated with varying degrees of willingness in the Final Solution, either staging executions, assisting German execution squads, or deporting citizens to German concentration camps.

As the fortunes of war changed in favour of the Red Army, many of the Axis allies demonstrated opportunism of another kind, and through their self-preservation instincts turned on Germany in 1944 as the war ground down to a final confrontation on German soil in 1945.

Even before Barbarossa began, Hitler single-handedly set out foreign policy for the German nation, and his decisions to attack countries - even as monumental an undertaking as the war against the USSR - were done without consulting his military. After December 1941, his power was all encompassing, and the war against the Soviet Union can rightly be called Hitler's War. The war against the Soviet Union ended in abject failure, and all of Hitler's foreign policy goals failed to be achieved, with the partial exception of his desire to destroy the Jewish peoples of Europe. This goal was worked towards with ruthless and ghastly efficiency; Jewish populations in many Eastern European nations were almost completely wiped out. But Gemany itself was occupied, the lands it gained by hook and by crook between 1933 and 1943 had been reclaimed, and the German state was occupied and partitioned for nearly 50 years.

Italy

Fascist Italy participated in the war, first as the Kingdom of Italy, in which Benito Mussolini ruled in the name of King Victor Emmanuel III until Sep 1943. After secret negotiations with the Allies, following the landing of Allied troops on the Italian mainland (including the 1st Canadian Infantry Division), Mussolini was dismissed and Italy joined the Allies. Those areas of the nation under German control, however, became the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI). Mussolini - arrested by the new Italian government - was rescued by German commandos in the Gran Sasso Raid on 12 Sep 1943 and installed as the leader of the RSI. He as captured in Apr 1945 and executed by Italian anti-fascist partisans.

Japan

Japan and Germany had become allies with the signing of the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1936. Japanese and Soviet forces had clashed briefly over territory in China, including open armed conflict, in 1939. Nonetheless, Japanese forces did not engage in direct large-scale combat with Soviet forces until after the capitulation of Germany. Japan's attack on the United States in Dec 1941 did provide the Soviet Union the ability to redeploy sorely needed resources from her eastern frontiers, however, and fresh Siberian divisions had profound effects on the combat outside Moscow in December 1941.

In the closing weeks of the war, Soviet forces determined to make last minute territorial gains in Manchuria before the close of the American-Japanese war initiated a brief period of combat with Japanese forces before the surrender of Japan in September 1945.

Other Members of the Axis

Debate continues among historians as to the precise membership of the Axis, as some nations joined under coercion or as the result of annexation or subjugation. Aside from the original three signatories to the Tripartite Pact of 1940, Yugoslavia had also signed the Pact on 25 Mar 1941, after long negotiations with Germany. Days later, however, a British-backed military coup toppled the pro-Axis government under Prince Paul. The new government feared that Britain would be unable to help them should they repudiate the treaty, and declared that Yugoslavia would abide by the Tripartite Pact's agreements. Germany nonetheless invaded and occupied Yugoslavia in Apr 1941, causing a crucial delay of their planned invasion of the Soviet Union for several weeks.

Other nations joining the pact included:

  • Hungary (20 Nov 1940)

  • Romania (23 Nov 1940)

  • Slovakia (24 Nov 1940)

  • Bulgaria (1 Mar 1941)

Croatia

Croatia, which gained nominal independence after German occupation of Yugoslavia in 1941, was considered a minor Axis Power. On 10 Apr 1941, an extreme-right nationalist organization called Ustaše proclaimed an "Independent State of Croatia" from regions of occupied Yugoslav territory after the capitulation of the Royal Yugoslavian Army to the Germans. The state was founded as a reaction to a perceived pro-Serbian bias in the national government of Yugoslavia. Fascist Croatians used their power to send hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Jews, Gypsies and political dissenters to their death in German concentration camps.

Thailand

While Thailand was not a signatory of the Tripartite Pact, it quickly ceased resistance to the Japanese invasion on 8 Dec 1941, and signed a military alliance with Japan in 1942, as well as declaring war on the United States and Great Britain.

Bulgaria

Bulgaria remained an Axis power until 9 Sep 1944, when the Bulgarian Communist Party staged a coup (coincidentally as the Red Army approached the nation's border), declaring the country the People's Republic of Bulgaria (which would last until 10 Nov 1989). Bulgaria officially joined the Allies in 1944, though no territorial gains were made as a result.

Vardar Macedonia, a region of Yugoslavia populated with ethnic Bulgarians, largely welcomed Bulgarian occupation in 1941. When Bulgaria left the Axis in Sep 1944, Germany suggested that Ivan Mihailov, the leader of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, declare Macedonian independence, but the idea was rejected.

Hungary

Hungary had actually started its collaboration with Italy in 1927 with the signing of a treaty, as well as creating ties, both formal and informal, with Germany in the 1930s. Hungary's desire was to regain territory lost after the First World War, and the dismantling of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Treaty of Trianon in 1920 had taken two-thirds of the nation's area and population away and ceded it to new countries. As such, it was a very willing participant in the Axis, participating in the dismantling of Czechoslovakia from which it acquired territory. Southern Slovakia went to Hungary in 1938 as part of the Munich Agreement, and in Mar 1939 Hungarian military forces occupied Ruthenia (also part of Czechoslovakia). In Aug 1940, Germany forced Romania to cede northern Transylvania to Hungary, putting her eastern frontier along the strategically important Carpathian mountains. In Apr 1941, Hungarian troops helped occupy Yugoslavia after the German invasion, alienating her non-German neighbours (Romania was already a bitter enemy) and ensuring reliance on the Germans for protection.

Hungary also participated in the war in the Soviet Union.

Italian Social Republic

The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana in Italian) was a fascist state established in 1943 after Italy, under King Victor Emmanuel III, joined the Allies. Mussolini had been arrested by the Italians, but he was freed in Sep 1943 by the spectacular raid on Gran Sasso by German commandos under the famous Waffen SS officer Otto Skorzeny. Mussolini was installed as the leader of the new republic, which was centred at Salò. The republic fell as German forces in the north of Italy surrendered or withdrew to German soil in early 1945.

Romania

The Kingdom of Romania joined the Axis on 23 Nov 1940 after the Soviet Union occupied half of the province of Moldova on 28 Jun 1940. Germany and Italy forced it to relinquish half of another province, Transylvania, to Hungary on 30 Aug 1940. Romania became a major participant in the war in the Soviet Union. By early 1944, as Soviet forces crossed the border into Romania, the Romanian Army became increasingly uncooperative with the Germans, and on 20 Aug 1944 Romania defected to the Allies.

Slovakia

The independent Slovak Republic was formed after the Czechoslovakia was dissolved before the Second World War. A "Protection treaty" gave Germany the power to set Slovakian foreign, military and economic policy on 23 Mar 1939. Slovakia therefore joined the Axis, and participated in the German campaigns against Poland in Sep-Oct 1939 and the Soviet Union in Jun 1941. With the exception of border territories, Slovakia was not occupied by the Germans.

Thailand

Japanese forces invaded Thailand as part of their widespread offensive in the Pacific on 8 Dec 1941. Resistance was ceased by the Prime Minister, Field Marshal Pibulsonggram, and a military alliance with Japan formed on 21 Dec was followed by declaration of war on Britain and the US on 25 Jan 1942. Thai forces were actively engaged against the Chinese. The Prime Minister was overthrown in 1944 as discontent with the Japanese presence in the country grew, though the new civilian government retained cordial relations with Japan. After the war, the United States - who had never reciprocated the declaration of war - insisted that Thailand not be treated as an Axis nation. Britain - who did reciprocate the war declaration in 1942 - demanded reparations in the form of rice and territory annexed from Malaya by the Thais, as well as parts of Burma and French territory in Cambodia and Laos.

Yugoslavia

As noted above, Yugoslavia joined the Axis on 25 Mar 1941 until a British-supported coup two days later cast doubt on Yugoslavia's status. Despite King Peter II's declaration of adherence to the Tripartite Pact, Germany occupied the nation in Apr 1941, which ceased to exist. As was the case with Poland, a government in exile was established in Britain. Germany annexed Slovenia, Italy took Dalmatia, Bulgaria took Macedonia, and Albania annexed Montenegro while Croatia declared independence. Serbia also became an independent entity, underneath a pro-Axis puppet head of state.

Finland

Finland was not a member of the Axis, but had long-standing territorial disputes with the Soviet Union. Finland had been part of the Russian Empire until 1917, when German troops assisted the Finns in establishing independence. The Finns maintained a policy of neutrality between the wars, and Soviet territorial demands in Oct 1939 led to negotiations halted by Soviet invasion without declaration of war on 30 Nov 1939. The Winter War lasted until Mar 1940 when the Finns negotiated a peace settlement, giving in to Soviet territorial demands.

In 1941, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Finland participated with the stipulation that all they sought was to recover territory lost in the Winter War. They called the new conflict the Continuation War and felt that both conflicts were separate from the Second World War as a whole. Finland never signed an agreement with Germany, Italy or Japan and while Great Britain and France declared war on Finland, the United States did not.

After limited offensive operations after the German invasion of Russia in Jun 1941, in which much Finnish territory was recovered, the Finns refused to get involved in protracted and costly operations in the Soviet Union. In Dec 1941, the decision was made to stablized their lines, and the front remained relatively quiet until Jun 1944. Massive Soviet attacks into Karelia obliterated all the gains made in the Continuation War, and in Aug 1944 a treaty with the Soviet Union was concluded. German forces were expelled from Finland and into northern Norway.

Defections

  • Italy - defected to the Allies on 8 Sep 1943. A fascist puppet state was established in northern Italy, which dissolved when Germany surrendered in May 1945.

  • Romania - defected to the Allies in Aug 1944

  • Bulgaria - Communist coup in Sep 1944 and defected to the Allies.

  • Germany - defeated by the Allies and surrendered unconditionally, with Victory in Europe Day declared by the Allies on 8 May 1945.

  • Japan - defeated by the Allies and surrendered unconditionally, with Victory over Japan Day declared by the Allies on 2 Sep 1945.

Satellite States

Europe

  • Austria became part of Germany after the Anschluss of 1938.

  • Belgium was overrun in May 1940.

  • Belarusian Central Rada was the name of the puppet state set up after the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941; this state disappeared after German forces withdrew in 1944.

  • Denmark was overrun in 1940.

  • Luxembourg was overrun in 1940, occupied until Aug 1942, then incorporated into Germany until liberated by the Allies in late 1944.

  • Lokot Republic was established as an experiment by Germany in establishing a pro-Axis, anti-Soviet Russian entity and represented an example of co-operation between Axis invaders and Russian nationals. The republic ended in 1943 as Axis fortunes in the East changed after Stalingrad.

  • The Netherlands were overrun in 1940.

  • Norway was overrun in 1940.

  • Reichskommissariats of Ostland and Ukraine - German run governments in conquered territories of the Soviet Union; they naturally disappeared as the Red Army regained lost territories in 1943 and 1944.

  • Vichy France - Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain became the head of state of unoccupied areas of France after the surrender on 22 Jun 1940, separate from the other two-thirds of France which was militarily occupied by the Germans. The government was established in the resort town of Vichy, and retained control of overseas possessions. Vichy French troops briefly saw combat against British and Free French troops in Syria in 1941, and against American and British forces in North Africa in Nov 1942. A Free French government in exile was established in the UK.

Vichy France signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941 and sent French volunteers to fight the Soviet Union. Vichy controlled colonies were sometimes used as bases for Axis military operations; Japan in particular occupied French Indochina, used as a staging base for invasions of Thailand, Malaya and Borneo.

Asia

  • Manchukuo (Manchuria) was a Japanese puppet state established in 1932. The independence of Manchuria was not recognized by the League of Nations, a situation that prompted Japan to withdraw from the League. Only Italy, Germany, and the Nanjing puppet government recognized the new state initially, though Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ba Maw Burmese Nation, Thailand, the Indian government of Subhas Chandra Bose, and The Vatican later gave recognition to Manchuria. After Japan's surrender, the Manchurian state was dissolved.

  • Mengjiang (Mengchiang) was a client state of Japan's, organized in northern China on 18 Feb 1936, though independence was theoretical only. This state disappeared in 1945 as Japan was defeated and mainland possessions were invaded by the Soviet Union in the wake of the US atomic bombings in Aug 1945.

  • A puppet state in Nanjing was founded on 29 Mar 1940 by the Japanese, which surrendered on 9 Sep 1945 to Nationalist Chinese forces.

  • Provisional Government of Free India - led by Indian nationalist Subhas Chandra Bose, this government never operated in India itself, but in Japanese-controlled areas outside the country. Bose rejected Gandhi's peaceful methods though their goal of Indian independence was the same. Bose declared an independent India in Oct 1943, creating a provisional capital in the Nicobar Islands. The state disappeared on 18 Aug 1945, having only been recognized during its brief history by other Axis nations or puppets including Germany, Japan, Italy, Croatia, the Wang Jingwei Government in Japanese-occupied China, Thailand, Burma, Manchukuo, and the Philippines.

Military Forces

The German Military

Germany's Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) consisted of the Army (Heer), Air Force (Luftwaffe) and Navy (Kriegsmarine). During the war, the Waffen SS also gained importance in dramatic fashion - originally a political organization, the SS grew during the war to encompass the General SS (under whom many state security and police organizations fell) and the Waffen SS, the military arm of the organization.

The SS was the private domain of one Heinrich Himmler, and the Luftwaffe too, under Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering, developed a large set of ground forces. At first only responsible for parachute troops and anti-aircraft units, the Luftwaffe raised several divisions of infantry units, as well as the elite armoured division named after the Reichsmarschall himself. The Army, however, fell more and more under Hitler's direct control - especially after assuming the post of Chief of the Army High Command in December 1941 in addition to his title of Supreme Commander. His most senior officers were lackeys and yes-men, notably the Chief of the Operation Staff of the High Command of the Armed Forces, Alfred Jodl, and the Chief of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces, Wilhelm Keitel. Any senior generals who opposed his orders or even his thoughts were routinely dismissed, some to be reinstated - and then dismissed again.

The Axis forces on Germany's Eastern Front were divided into Army Groups, as noted below. Each Army Group was made up of Armies, each Army made up of two or more Corps, each Corps having two or more divisions, and troops of all the services were combined into these Army Groups. The various contingents of foreign national armies or foreign legions listed further down on this page were attached to German higher formations and fought in the area of responsibility of the various Army Groups as well.

German Army Groups on the Eastern Front

22 June 1941

Army Group North

Army Group Centre


 

Army Group South

7 Jul 1942

Army Group North

Army Group Centre


 

Split into two Army Groups: Army Group A, Army Group B

21 Nov 1942

Army Group North

Army Group Centre

Army Group Don created

Army Group A

Army Group B

12 Feb 1943

Army Group North

Army Group Centre

Reformed into Army Group South

Army Group A

Army Group B

Mar 1943

Army Group North

Army Group Centre

Army Group South

Army Group A

transferred to Italy

31 Mar 1944

Army Group North

Army Group Centre

Army Group South

renamed Army Group South Ukraine


 

4 Apr 1944

Army Group North

Army Group Centre

Renamed Army Group North Ukraine

Army Group South Ukraine


 

Sep 1944

Army Group North

Army Group Centre

Army Group North Ukraine

Renamed Army Group South


 

28 Sep 1944

Army Group North

Army Group Centre

Renamed Army Group A

Army Group South


 

26 Jan 1945

renamed Army Group Kurland

renamed Army Group North

renamed Army Group Centre

Army Group South

Army Group Vistula created

2 Apr 1945

Army Group Kurland

Army Group North

Army Group Centre

Renamed Army Group Ostmark

Army Group Vistula

5 Apr 1945

disbanded

Army Group North

Army Group Centre

Army Group Ostmark

Army Group Vistula

May 1945


 

surrendered

surrendered

surrendered

surrendered

The German Army

Nationhood and Early Beginnings

A German national Army did not exist as such until after the First World War; troops in that conflict had come from different states such as Bavaria, Saxony, Prussia, etc. Tradition extending back centuries always dictated that the Army would be a non-political and highly obedient servant not just of the State, but of the Ruler, be he emperor or king. With the abolition of the monarchy after World War One, and with no Kaiser to swear loyalty to, German soldiers and ex-soldiers (one Adolf Hitler among them) threw themselves into the political turmoil throughout the country, as the Freikorps (Free Corps) roamed the countryside. The Army eventually moved itself out of the political arena, withdrawing into its traditional anti-democratic and non-political stance. A condition of the peace of 1918 was that the German state as a whole be permitted only a 100,000 man Armed Forces called the Reichswehr, in which volunteers had to sign on for extensive periods of time. The Army once again pledged itself to total obedience and service to the state.

When Hitler finally came to power as Chancellor in the early 1930s, the Army struggled to remain non-political. Officers noted with alarm that political armies such as the SA (see below under the Waffen SS) had gained in importance - in 1933 the SA numbered 400,000 men, outnumbering the Army some 4 to 1. A brief flirtation with political power immediately before Hitler's accession to Chancellor is seen as the last chance the Army had of preventing a National Socialist takeover. But the generals, for a variety of reasons, were powerless to intervene. The only path for the German Army at this stage was to war; to fulfill his ultimate political aims, Hitler would need more than just political bullies such as the SA. Hitler unified the German states and announced a general re-armament, and the Army changed dramatically. Regimental traditions as rich as those held by the British Army were dispensed with in favour of a homogenous new Heer (as the Reichsheer was redubbed - meaning simply The Army). From a 100,000 man standing start, the new Wehrmacht was expanded greatly in a very short time, by October 1934 some 240,000 men were under arms. The Army was intended to be the sole bearer of arms of the nation, and the SA was greatly reduced in importance beginning in June 1934 with a purge of its leadership. More importantly, Hitler refused to intervene in Army matters and the Army was allowed to run itself.

The German Army had a strong manpower pool to draw from; not only was twelve months of military service compulsory for all German males of appropriate age, but paramilitary youth groups were common, in which German boys started to receive military training even before entering their teen years. Service with the Reich Arbeits Dienst (RAD - German Labor Service) was also compulsory. Marching, drill, discipline, weapons training, and a regimentalized system of living was part of the German male's experiences throughout his formative years. All German recruits, for the first time in history, swore their oath of allegiance to a single individual by name - Adolf Hitler.

By 1938, the Army occupied the same position the SA had in 1934; it was the most important armed force in the German state, and like the SA in 1934, the Army leadership had lost Hitler's confidence and trust. Both Himmler and Goering had axes to grind with the Army leadership - and vice versa. Hitler acted to consolidate power and some 50 generals were dismissed, or made to resign, with Hitler assuming, in February 1938, the role of Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.

Backbone of the Army; a highly decorated non-commissioned officer, wearing the black uniform of a tank crewman.

Rapid Expansion

In 1939, the Army had grown to number 52 active and 51 reserve divisions, with 730,000 men under arms and 1,100,000 in reserve. After mobilization for war in September, a remarkable achievement in itself, Germany's men under arms totalled over 3,700,000, of a total population of some 80,000,000. But the rapid expansion had its dangers; from 84 infantry battalions in 1934, Germany fielded some 885 in 1939 - more than ten times as many. Twenty-four artillery battalions had expanded to become 439 in the same time frame. Some 3,550 officers existed in the German Army in 1933 (not counting 450 medical and veterinary officers), and 500 of these were transferred to the fledgling Air Force. By 1939, some 100,000 officers were required. Many NCOs and Police officers were commissioned to make up shortfalls - with the added effect of breaking down social class distinctions in the Army, which had been a supposed goal of National Socialism in any event. The camaraderie that grew during the war between officers and men in the German Army was arguably more intense than in the armies of most of the Allies; this infusion of men from the ranks no doubt helped this take place.

Victory in Poland, followed by the unexpected declaration of war by France and Britain, paved the way for successful campaigns in Norway, and finally the Low Countries and France itself. Victory had come through capitalization of poor Polish deployment; their armies did not take advantage of natural obstacles such as rivers, and worse, was forced to deploy on two fronts when the Soviets invaded from the east after the initial German successes in the western part of the country. Despite immense logistical problems caused by the reliance on nearly 200,000 horses accompanying the German Army, the campaign was effectively concluded by the 18th day, and had been decided by the fourth day. A large battle ending with the capture of some 170,000 Polish soldiers would be the largest encirclement in the entire history of warfare to that date.

The Polish campaign revealed another trend that would continue throughout the war; that of Adolf Hitler's willingness to gamble. In September 1939, the gamble had been that the western Allies would not declare war, a gamble that Hitler lost.

The Nature of German Warfare

The Polish Campaign had been essentially an infantryman's battle; German infantry made up 75% of the attacking force, and the majority of battles were concluded within 50 miles of the frontier, where the bulk of the Polish forces chose to deploy. A small portion of the German force had to march as far as 200 miles, but supply and fatigue did not pose any real problem - as they would later in the expanse of the Soviet Union. More tellingly, German air and armoured forces were not deployed for long ranging shock action - as the myth of Blitzkrieg would have us believe - but in some cases, armoured formations were actually subordinated to the command of infantry corps. The armoured units were envisioned as leading a collaborative effort against the enemy - not of taking independent action.

The Army leadership in Poland became aghast at German plans for occupation of the country, and especially the action of the Security Police, members of the SS that followed the Army and were tasked with securing the rear areas. Unofficially, they served a more sinister purpose, along with the Einsatzgruppen, or Special Action groups. Six such groups, numbering between 400 and 600 men each, marched into Poland and under several pretexts, rounded up intelligentsia, officials, businessmen, religion figures and other important personages, and executed them. Army commanders and rank and file alike were not fooled by the official pretexts for the murders - usually attributed to "counter espionage work" - and after the conclusion of the campaign, Army generals were so keen on distancing themselves from the killings that they pulled out of their occupation duties before being formally relieved. The SS stepped happily in, and the campaign continued unhindered. The Army turned its attention to the West.

Campaigns in the West and the Myth of Blitzkrieg

The campaigns in Denmark and Norway in the spring of 1940 formed a necessary prelude to the invasion of France and the Low Countries. It was here that German armoured forces were able to practice techniques that would later come to play in the Soviet Union. Even before the invasion of France, however, there was no consensus on the correct method of attack, and no thought that "Blitzkrieg" was the ultimate solution to the problem. The final plan drafted by Manstein was notable for its high risk factor - an attack with mobile forces through the dense Ardennes Forest. But the plan was also consistent with conventional German military thinking; a difficult campaign was expected in which the infantry would play a major role.

The myth of Blitzkrieg persists in the image of German panzers driving deep into French territory with air power blasting a way forward. This simply did not happen. Rough terrain, and especially the obstacle of the Meuse River, delayed German armoured forces to a great extent, and the infantry was still the mainstay of the attacking forces; the assault over the Meuse was actually led by anti-tank and engineer units. Airpower was indeed crucial to the campaign, with aerial supremacy being established quickly, and providing a secure blanket over the troops on the ground, as well as confusing French commanders as to the intent of German forces - but in no way did the use of airpower signify any revolution in modern warfare, and aerial attacks accounted for little destruction among enemy ground forces. Conservative employment of the armoured troops, too, caused the Army to stop short of annihilating some 300,000+ troops at Dunkirk by prematurely halting.

Planning for an invasion of the Soviet Union in the spring of 1941, Hitler's plans were sidetracked by the need to intervene to assist Italy in North Africa as well as the Balkans. After a quick conquest of Yugoslavia and Greece, and the despatch of a token force to Africa, Barbarossa was slated for June. Several weeks of good campaigning weather had been lost. Further, the myth of Blitzkrieg and the miraculous victory over France in six weeks led many Germans to believe that the Soviet Union would be a pushover.

By 1941, the German Army had a considerable amount of experience at conducting operations in the field, and had not yet faced a major defeat. Two schools of thought pervaded the grand strategy planned for the Russian campaign; the "armoured concept" of Heinz Guderian, who advocated swift moving armoured forces rapidly advancing to capture enemy power centres, and the classical approach, favoured by the High Command , of decisive maneuver, in which pockets of enemy troops could be encircled and destroyed. The use of maneuvered had been practiced by German armies for at least a century; the war with the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1866 had lasted just six weeks, the main battles of the 1870-71 war with France lasted just over six weeks, and initial successes in 1914 also showed the effectiveness of maneuver. No tanks or Stuka dive bombers had been necessary; in 1940 new technology was applied to these older ideas, but the concepts were nothing new. After the shock of attrition warfare and the ascent of the machinegun as the master of the infantryman's battlefield, there were serious questions as to whether decisive maneuver could still work, but the new technologies - tanks, support aircraft, and flexible artillery support - seemed to ensure that the decisive maneuver could be successful, and the two schools of thought, with much in common (both rejected attrition as a viable means of waging war) would shape German strategy in Russia.

Nature of combat in the Soviet Union

The German Army was not prepared for many factors it encountered in the Soviet Union. Firstly was the fighting ability of the Soviet soldier, who showed a marked willingness to accept casualties, as well as a genius for entrenchment and camouflage. Secondly was the appearance of excellent Soviet tanks such as the T-34 and KV-1; while poorly employed and co-coordinated in the field, and often lacking spare parts, the Germans had few weapons capable of dealing with these weapons on an equal footing and their existence came as a rude surprise. The weather, too, was an enemy as dogged as the individual Russian soldier, be it the long periods of mud and rain in spring and autumn (made even more noticeable by the lack of paved roads in the Soviet Union) or the intense cold of winter which froze many types of German equipment. Notably, no preparations had been made to transport cold weather clothing to German soldiers in Russia in late 1941, general consensus being that the campaign would be over before the snows fell.

While the German soldier fought with great skill and determination, his Soviet counterpart in time also became quite skillful and lavishly equipped with automatic weapons, tanks and artillery, and his tactics improved (the eventual addition of radios to their tanks, for example, helped greatly). German units received improved small arms as the war went on, including semi-automatic and automatic weapons, though these never fully supplanted the bolt action K98 Mauser rifle as the mainstay of the infantryman. But by no means had the current modern family of small arms reached the entire German Army by June of 1941, and numbers or older weapons remained in front line units long after the invasion of Russia began; none of which probably mattered a great deal; both sides found the majority of casualties suffered were usually inflicted by artillery.

The Soviet Union also had a significant manpower advantage, and despite the crushing losses inflicted on it early in the war, the Soviet nation was able to mobilize and replace these losses in a significantly short period of time. The declaration of war on the United States by Japan also allowed the Soviets to reduce her eastern garrisons and move troops to the west to fight the Germans - the arrival of the Siberians in December of 1941 was especially significant.

The further into the Soviet Union that the invading Axis armies travelled, the harder it became to keep them supplied. Soviet railway lines were of a different guage than German trains, Soviet rails were lighter and only capable of carrying a 17 ton axle load (7 tons less than the European standard), Soviet locomotives had larger water capacity which meant that watering stations were farther apart in the USSR than in Europe - a problem when the Germans decided to relay the track in the country to the German gauge. Construction of new railway lines were inefficient, and length of track laid was given priority over necessities such as roundhouses, depots, workshop facilities, coal and water stations, etc. Only about 25 percent of the Soviet rail lines were double tracked rather than single tracked, and poor roadbeds in many areas limited maximum speeds to 20 miles per hour. Motor transport was also hampered severely by the lack of graded and paved roads in the Soviet Union, as well as the spring and autumn rainy periods which quickly turned the dirt roads into quagmires.

Production and Distribution of Materiel

German units were always deficient in key items of equipment, notably motor transport, and were heavily reliant on draft animals - very often supplementing their own horses with smaller Russian ponies when they could be found. A single first line infantry division required some 4,842 horses to supplement its motor transport allotment of just over 1000 cars and trucks. Weaker divisions required fewer cars and trucks, (still amounting to close to 600 vehicles ) but required over 6,000 horses. By the war's end, over 2,700,000 horses would have passed through the German Army. The 198th Infantry Division reported in November 1941 that its complement of 4600 horses had diminished to 3100, with some 1200 of these barely able to stand for due to a combination of cold weather, overexertion and lack of suitable fodder. These horses were stabled until they recovered - in mid June 1942; in their place 1600 local Panjes (Russian ponies) were utilized.

Halftrack vehicles and armoured personnel carriers - in theory the standard mount of the elite Schützen and Panzergrenadier regiments of the Panzer divisions - were never available in anything like adequate numbers. Tanks capable of keeping pace with Soviet tank design were long in coming, and the introduction of the Tiger in late 1942 was a blessing for German tank men. The even better Panther was delayed until the summer of 1943, and original models were mechanically unreliable. By this point, the disasters at Stalingrad and El Alamein had fallen and the Combined Bomber Offensive of the western Allies was wreaking havoc, if not directly on the German economy, then not so co-incidentally her civilian population.

The German economy was never properly geared for war production until very late in the game; James Lucas tells us (in his book Reich) that in 1943 1 million German women were employed as hairdressers rather than employed in "war work." The word "krieg" (war) was also never used openly before 1943, rather a "period of national emergency" was declared.

German Leadership of BARBAROSSA

Perhaps most importantly, Adolf Hitler assumed greater control over the Army's employment in the field in December of 1941, assuming the post of Chief of the Army High Command. While his Stand or Die orders that winter may in fact have been the correct method of preventing a rout, his continued issuance of similar orders on later occasions throughout the war were not suited for many of the tactical situations of units to whom those orders were given. The most notorious example was the Sixth Army at Stalingrad; most historians feel that had von Paulus been permitted early on to withdraw or attempt to fight his way out of the Soviet encirclement, thousands of German lives might have been saved. As the war went on, many German generals were sacked (some more than once) when they were seen to disagree with Hitler or issue orders contrary to his wishes.

The einsatzgruppen followed the Army into Russia as well, and amidst the legitimate concerns of anti-partisan warfare, mass executions of enemy civilians were commonplace, and on a large scale. At Babi Yar in September 1941, some 33,771 civilians were exterminated, ostensibly in reprisal for German Army casualties caused by the explosion of mines laid by the Red Army. By the end of 1941, with the assistance of local volunteers in the Baltics and Ukraine, the einsatzgruppen could report that nearly 500,000 civilians had been killed. The direct effect on the Army - whose level of direct participation is unclear but whose level of knowledge of these activities is easier to surmise - was the necessity of employing large numbers of men on security and anti-partisan duties in the rear areas.

After the defeat at Stalingrad, the German Army had transformed from an unbeaten force of conquerors to an army forced to fight for its life. The first major defeats in North Africa occured just as the Stalingrad battle opened, and by the time the Kursk battle was concluded - the last great German offensive of the war in the East - the western Allies had landed on Sicily and Italy was soon to capitulate. But the German soldier fought on, along with desperate allies who saw the Red Army advancing towards their borders, and decided that their best hope for fair treatment by the invading Soviets would be to switch sides.

During the two years of defensive warfare and retreat, the German Army maintained discipline and morale - sometimes through draconian means, such as the creation of "flying courts martial" and special military police units who were authorized to try, convict and execute deserters and shirkers. The policy of aggressive counter-attacks often led to hastily prepared attacks for little gain with appreciable losses in valuable resources, especially tanks and armoured fighting vehicles.

Perhaps the most visible sign that Hitler had lost faith in his Army was his order on 24 July 1944 (in the wake of the Bomb Plot that almost killed him four days earlier) that the military hand salute was to be immediately replaced with the "German Greeting" - the act of stretching the arm out to a 45 degree angle, accompanied by the salutation "Heil Hitler." All officers of the German Army were ordered to re-swear their oath of allegiance. Certainly many officers had finally seen Hitler as the greatest obstacle to Germany's well being. But the plot against Hitler had been put down bloodily and swiftly by both the SS, and regular Army officers still devoted to the cause. There would be no more chances for conspirators; Hitler soon retreated into seclusion, drastic security measures were taken not only for his own personal safety, but to ensure that soldiers in the field kept fighting. Soldiers who deserted or surrendered now left their families at risk of arrest; flying courts-martial and execution became so common that historians can't determine with precision exactly how many German troops were executed in the last days of the war.

The German General Staff - a unique institution - was also deeply mistrusted by Hitler. After December 1941, the Army High Command (OKH) and Hitler's personal staff, the Armed Forces High Command (OKW) operated separately and were united only by Hitler's personal direction. By 1945, Hitler promised to dismantle the entire system, and by March 1945, Kesselring of the Luftwaffe and Doenitz of the Navy were in command of ground operations, leaving Army officers completely out of the highest levels of the command loop. Infantry

The German infantryman was a highly trained specialist, whose training began with 16 weeks of basic military training (decreased during the war to eight, and progressively less in the closing months of the war) in the region (Wehrkreis) where he was recruited. After advanced trades training - where the infantryman learned to use the machine pistol, light machinegun, several types of grenades, different tactics and drills, the art of entrenchment and camouflage in the field, how to attack tanks, first aid, survival skills and a variety of other skills - the soldier joined a March Company and moved to the front as a formed unit, eventually to join one of the numbered regiments of the Army that hailed from his home region. He was taught to take over a squad or platoon in an emergency, and that it was always better to do something, than nothing. The concept of auftragstaktik - misson-type orders - meant that leaders at the lowest levels were given the flexibility to think for themselves in battle rather than tie themselves to rigid plans, and show initiative where men in other armies might simply remain idle.

Changes to regimental organization were minor during the war, though individual armament changed greatly. From the beginning of the Russian Campaign, German soldiers were taught to aggressively react to armoured threats with whatever means were at hand. Eventually, of necessity, an increasingly deadly array of anti-tank weaponry was introducted, from magnetic mines to hand held disposable rocket launchers which improved in quality as the war went on, to the bazooka-inspired Panzerschreck. But hand in hand with new weapons came decreases in manpower, and the established strengths of German units decreased as the war went on. Infantry squads of 10 men were replaced with a nine man organization, for example (in practice these numbers meant little in any event). Other weapons were upgraded in capability; the 3.7cm anti tank gun was successively replaced with 5.0 cm and 7.5 cm models, and the 8.1 cm mortar began to be replaced in infantry battalions with the 12 cm model.

Usually outnumbered by 1943, and kept in the line by harsh discipline, the German Army also represented a progressive entity where cameraderie - even between commissioned officers and enlisted men - was a cornerstone of morale and efficiency. Whereas the soldier of the Kaiserheer in 1914-1918 had sometimes been abused in basic training by strict NCOs, and required to refer to his officers in the third person, the Landser in Russia was often closer to his company commander than members of the "democratic" armies of the US or Britain, where officers sometimes remained insulated from their men by tradition or class difference. German officers ate the same food as their men (albeit off a metal plate) and shared their dangers, while recruits in training were treated more humanely than in the Old Army (with some old soldiers venturing the opinion that the Army had "lost it."). Mountain Troops

Mountain troops date back to before the start of the 20th Century; previous to this, wars were usually conducted in spring, summer or early autumn weather - European nations with mountainous borders up until the late 19th Century could depend on small bands of militia to defend their mountain passes. As railways and roads were developed during the 1800s, it became obvious that small bands of soldiers were inadequate to the task of delaying enemy forces moving through their mountainous borders, and a need for specially trained mountain troops was felt. During the First World War, the first combat employment of specially trained mountain troops occurred in the Austrian, Hungarian and Italian alps. German alpine troops came to see action in Tyrol and later Macedonia, and proved themselves so capable they were used as assault troops at Verdun before being employed in mountains once more in Romania, the Vosges, and Caporetto, among others. The tradition of mountain troops continued in the Wehrmacht, and during the period of German expansion, three small units were expanded to become the 1st Gebirgsjäger Division. With Austrian annexation in 1938, two more mountain divisions were added to the Wehrmacht, and all three were employed in Poland. Aside from their initial fighting against Polish alpine troops, the German mountain soldiers were too lightly equipped to be of much use in the rest of the campaign; pooled transport allowed one division to advance to Lemberg, where they did not have the equipment or manpower to take the city itself.

Mountain troops saw action in France, and extensive employment in Norway, followed by fighting in the Balkans. All these employmens, with the exception of brief periods in France and the Low Countries, saw the Gebirgsjäger employed in mountainout terrain. This stopped in June 1941 when the Mountain divisions were sent into Russia as part of Barbarossa. By now there were six divisions of German mountain troops, spread along the front from Finland in the north to Army Group South. Two more mountain divisions were raised by 1944, and all the divisions were widely employed, moving to different sectors of the front, and to other fronts, as was felt necessary. Mobile Troops

The German Army began the war with Poland possessing some 4,500 armoured fighting vehicles, of which under 600 were armed with guns larger than 20mm. In France, German AFVs (which include armoured cars and halftracks) were outnumbered by British and French AFVs by some 4,000 to 2,800. German tanks were marked by reliability for the most part, but also complexity and over-engineering, as well as a lack of standardization (leading to problems in the mass production of vehicles - for example, both Porsche and Henschel produced components for Tiger tanks that were not interchangeable.) In other words, when running, German tanks performed very well, but when broken down were more difficult to repair. Shortages of these vehicles also led to their constant use, and the sheer number of differing types (again, a result of non-standardization) led to supply and repair problems.

The Germans entered the Soviet Union with an initial force of 3,350 armoured vehicles, and production was not increased to war levels until late 1942. Over 20,000 vehicles were built in 1943 after the move to a war footing (some 350% the number of vehicles produced in 1941) - though a third of this total represented armoured halftracks. By the end of the war, some 80,000 armoured vehicles had been built by Germany - with only 22,000+ being main battle tanks (to use the modern term) or Panzer III, IV, V or VI type. By way of contrast, the US produced almost 50,000 Shermans (with few going to the Pacific) and the Soviets produced some 71,000 T-34, KV and IS tanks.

The discovery of the Soviet T-34 and KV-1 tanks in the summer of 1941 was a rude shock for German tank troops, though German tankers had also seen heavier tank models fielded by the French (Char B1 bis) and English (Matilda) in France in 1940 as well. It was not until late 1942 and the introduction of the Tiger that the German armoured force had a heavyweight tank of its own in sizable numbers. German armour had many advantages over Soviet armour from the beginning of the campaign, however. Mechanical reliability was superior (some Soviet tanks came complete with hammer so the driver could change gears by beating the stiff controls into place), as were optics and crew training. The use of wireless allowed for flexible command and control over armoured formations, and German tank units were deployed en masse for maximum efficiency.

In 1939, most trucks used by motorized infantry had been road-bound and could not travel cross-country with the tanks. After the Polish Campaign, armoured divisions were increased in infantry power; in 1942 the Schützen regiments were designated Panzergrenadier, and in tandem with this name change came the introduction of SPW halftracks - initially intended for issue to two full battalions in each division with these halftracks, in reality only one battalion per division became the norm. In France, this allotment had been only one company of armoured infantry for every panzer division. Of 226 panzergrenadier battalions in the whole of the German Army, Luftwaffe and Waffen SS in September 1943, only 26 were equipped with armoured half tracks.

Strategically, Germany never developed successful defensive policies with its armour once the initiative passed to the Allies in 1943; armour was usually amassed and thrown into new offensive operations rather than used defensively. As the tide of the war turned, assault and self-propelled guns were built in large numbers, as these were cheaper to produce than fully turreted tanks - though having 17 seperate types of assault gun (and this only includes major types, defined as having production runs of 60 vehicles or more) did not help ease logistical burdens.

The operations of German mobile troops were highly publicized throughout the war, and their presence was essential for most major actions to be successful. They never accounted for more than a simple minority, however, among the far more numerous infantry divisions who marched (with their horses) from battle to battle, and even the mythical panzergrenadiers, fighting while safely ensconced in armoured halftracks, was something of a myth - truck and halftrack-borne infantry invariably dismounted to fight. Artillery

The artillery was an important and decisive arm of the division's firepower. By 1941, the 75mm field pieces found in some units had been replaced with 10.5 cm and 15 cm pieces being standard. By the middle of the war, the standard configuration for an infantry division was 36 of the lighter 10.5 cm field pieces with 12 heavier 15 cm guns, scaled back to 24 of the 10.5 cm pieces after a 1943 reorganization of infantry divisions. Higher formations used 17 and 21 cm guns, with rocket artillery becoming important, generally grouped independently and assigned to divisions as needed. Higher formations also used the same (smaller) field guns as the divisional artilleries as well, generally attached directly to Armies. These units tended to be motorized rather than horse drawn as the majority of infantry division artillery regiments were. A wide variety of rocket weapons were also employed, both towed and self propelled, and these also were assigned to a corps or army rather than specific divisions, and these units too were primarily motorized. Most German artillery was horsedrawn, with the panzer and motorized infantry/panzergrenadier divisions having self-propelled guns. At the time of Barbarossa, air power (most notably Stuka dive bombers) was used heavily as fire support; as the Allies achieved greater mastery of the skies by 1943 and 1944, rocket artillery and larger field pieces were used to supplement divisional artillery, as well as the increasing use of assault guns in the direct fire role.

The most notorious artillery piece of the war was the "88", officially the 8.8 cm FlaK 18 (later also a FlaK 36 model). The suitability of this high calibre anti-aircraft gun against ground targets had been noted in the Spanish Civil War, and after ad hoc use in France as an anti-tank gun against the near-impregnable Char B1 bis and Matildas, it's place in the German anti-tank arsenal was assured by its performance in North Africa - picking off British tanks at ranges of 2000 metres with ease. The 88 was produced in large numbers, and was employed freely as an anti-armour and anti-personnel weapon in addition to its main anti-aircraft role. The Germans also used a variety of low calibre, quick firing cannons for anti-aircraft work that were routinely used as a ground weapon, both towed and self-propelled weapons of 2 and 3.7 cm were employed, in single and multiple mounts.

German artillery practices differed from those of the Allies in many ways; Artillery Battalions were normally fired as a single unit, rather than batteries firing independently in support of different infantry units (as was often the case with Commonwealth units, for example). In rare circumstances, this was done, but was not the norm. Unlike the Soviets, the Germans saw artillery as a supporting arm rather than having a central role. Whereas one forward observer in a British unit could conceivably call down the fire of an entire corps or even army with a single code word, German artillery organization precluded such massing of fire. An Arko (Artillerie Kommandeur - Artillery Commander) designated both an officer and a headquarters unit created specifically to co-ordinate all the artillery units within a corps, and later in the war, Harkos (Höherer Artillerie Kommadeur - Higher Artillery Commander) were designated to perform the same function with all artillery units within an Army. The ability to call down artillery fire was not as lavishly given out as in other armies, due to the logistical realities the Germans faced in the Soviet Union, and the attendant need to husband ammunition. Divisional artillery officers, and corps level staff officers, generally allocated firepower resources to units on the front, with artillery units being assigned to specific formations or units. In this way, infantry units could not rob their neighbours of fire support allocated to them.

Artillery units were weakened during the war in the east by occasional combings-out of personnel to form emergency infantry units for partisan hunts or to shore up defences in the event of enemy breakthroughs, and many experienced artillerymen were lost in this way.

Statistics

In all, some 12.5 million men passed through the German Army (and 18 million in all three services) in World War Two with about 1.6 million being killed between 1939 and 1945 on all fronts.

The Waffen SS

A picture is worth a thousand words. A veteran SS soldier of the Totenkopf Division in the turret of his tank, Kharkov, early 1943. The extent of his experience is displayed on his left breast; his fatigue is displayed just as convincingly on his face.

The roots of the Waffen SS lay in the political turmoil in Germany after the First World War. The SA (Sturm Abteilungen or Storm Troops), created in 1921, were one of the necessities of political life in Germany at the time. Their role was to protect the fledgling Nazi Party from opposing groups. The SA rose to number 3 million members by 1933 while at the same time, a Schutz Staffel (Protection Squad) was created as the personal bodyguard of one Adolf Hitler. By 1929 this group had only 280 members, but under the leadership of Heinrich Himmler came to number 30,000 members by 1933. After the Knight of the Long Knives in 1934, when the head of the SA and Hitler's main political rival, Ernst Roehm, was killed (along with many of his lieutenants in key positions in the SA), the SS grew in importance, taking over political police work and becoming increasingly important in the realms of Party and government.

The SS came to be a very complex empire, and what was to become the Waffen SS was only a small part of the Allgemeine SS (General SS). The SS as a whole was largely a bureaucratic and political entity who controlled key security functions such as the SD (Security Police), Gestapo (Secret State Police), and Concentration Camps.

At the outbreak of war, a small group of SS men, armed and trained as soldiers for service in the field, had been created. Collectively known as SS-Verfügungstruppe (SS-VT), these men included four motorized infantry regiments. Hitler saw the SS as an elite and loyal political police force which would keep control in the conquered territories and at home. Himmler, whose powers as head of the SS and several national police agencies had become truly awe-inspiring, dreamed of creating a modern day Knighthood of racially pure Aryans. Due to these ambitions, and the high standards imposed on SS recruits, the SS men were given an opportunity to prove themselves in combat.

The experience of the SS-VT units in Poland and France (by 1940, numbering just over two divisions and renamed Waffen SS) was sufficient to ensure they remained on the order of battle during the Balkans campaign in the spring of 1941. By June 1941, five divisions (at least in name) and a brigade were available for action. One of these, Wiking, had half its strength made up of non-Germans: volunteers from across Europe who had volunteered to fight against Communism in the East. In addition, ethnic Germans in other nations were also permitted to join German SS units.

Waffen SS Divisions - 22 June 1941

Area of Deployment

Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (Motoriziert)

Army Group South

SS Division (Motoriziert) "Reich"

Army Group Centre

SS Totenkopf Division

Army Group North

Polizei Division (not technically part of the W-SS)

Army Group North

SS Division (Motoriziert) "Wiking"

Army Group South

SS Kampfgruppe "Nord" (brigade sized unit)

Northern Finland

Despite poor showings by Polizei and Nord, the performance of the other divisions earned the Waffen SS a reputation for steadfastness and respect from their comrades in the Army. The year 1942 saw several more divisions created; Polizei joined the Waffen SS proper, and both a mountain division and a Cavalry division were formed. The former ("Prinz Eugen") was created from Austrian-Germans and served (notoriously) on anti-partisan duties in Yugoslavia.

After the Waffen SS played a starring role in the important capture of Kharkov in the spring of 1943 (in the wake of the disastrous defeat at Stalingrad), three new German SS divisions were recruited, along with a growing list of foreign legions and divisions composed of ethnic volunteers. By early 1945, the Waffen SS numbered some 38 divisions on paper, though many of these were in reality fictitious, some divisions fielded a handful of companies. Racial policies were relaxed and hopelessly confused in the closing years of the war, and many "ethnic" SS formations were renamed several times as the need for troops increased, and the apparent need for racial purity not so coincidentally dissipated. By 1945, the Waffen SS numbered some 800,000 men and accounted for 25 percent of Germany's tank troops and 33 percent of Germany's motorized infantry.

The Army usually looked on the better SS divisions as "good comrades" and came to respect their fighting abilities by the middle of the war. Comradeship among Waffen SS troops was high; even taking the extra step of eliminating the need for soldiers to address auperiors by the formal "Herr" in addition to their rank. At the same time, the SS showed a contempt for the human qualities of their enemies, and the core divisions were truly feared on the battlefield for the no-quarter attitude displayed by SS men, the higher scale of issue of new weapons afforded them in deference to their "elite" status, their willingness to take high casualties, and reluctance to yield ground or break off an attack. SS formations have also gained a reputation - before the war and after - for willful commission of atrocities. Some units earned especial notoriety - Prinz Eugen in Yugoslavia, for example, or the Hitlerjugend Division in Normandy.

Many foreign legions were incorporated into the Waffen SS proper, more details are found below under the various nationality headings. The raw numbers of volunteers are as follows.

Number of Waffen SS Volunteers by Nationality

Western Europe

Eastern (Axis Allies)

Eastern Europe (Soviet States and Other)

Belgium: Walloons

15,000

Albania

3,000

Belorussia

12,000

Belgium: Flemish

23,000

Bulgaria

1,000

Cossacks

50,000

Denmark

11,300

Croatia

20,000

Eastern Turks

8,000

France

8,000

Finland

1,000

Estonia

20,000

Italy

20,000

Romania

5,000

Latvia

39,000

Netherlands

22,000 to 50,000


 


 

Serbia

15,000

Norway

6,000


 


 

Ukraine

26,000

Spain

1,000


 


 


 


 

Sweden, Switzerland & Luxemburg

3,000


 


 


 


 

It is estimated some 180,000 SS soldiers were killed in World War Two (on all fronts) with 400,000 wounded and 40,000 missing, In June 1944 the Waffen SS had over 594,000 troops on its rolls (serving on all three fronts), with 368,000 of them considered field troops.

The German Air Force (Luftwaffe)

Like the SS, the Luftwaffe was very much affected by the personality and political clout of its commander. Hermann Goering, a World War One fighter pilot and ace (who in fact commanded Baron von Richtofen's unit after his death) was the number two man in Nazi Germany, holding the title Reichsmarschall in addition to his command of the German Air Force. Like Himmler, Goering wanted his personal empire to play an important role in German victories. As early as 1933, Goering had organized the General Goering Police Regiment (as part of his portfolio as Prussian Minister of the Interior), which later became the famed Hermann Goering Panzer Division.

By 1941, the Luftwaffe numbered nearly 2,000,000 men, the largest percentage of these being anti-aircraft personnel and signal troops, with a small minority of men actually being associated with aerial operations. Overall, of all of Germany's total manpower of armed troops, the Air Force accounted for twenty percent. The first six months of campaigning in Russia cost the Army some 700,000 casualties, with half that number again lost in the first three months of 1942. Replacements could not make good these losses, and front line Army units were continually short handed. When the Army requested a transfer of 50,000 Air Force troops to their control, Goering convinced Hitler that the solution was not to lose politically loyal troops to the tradition bound Army (the Air Force was considered most National Socialist of the three services, the Navy was traditionally Christian, and the Army was widely considered reactionary) but to create Luftwaffe ground units. In September 1942, the first calls went out for volunteers, with a target of 100,000 men set.

In the meantime, Anti-Aircraft units had already accompanied Army troops into Russia, and an entire division of paratroopers were employed for the first time in a pure foot soldier role near Leningrad in the autumn of 1941. (The zenith of German airborne operations had been Crete, which proved so costly that Hitler forbade any future parachute or glider operations.) As the Air Force followed the Army deep into Russia, emergency units were created out of necessity to combat partisans and for security duties around the airfields and supply bases. Successful deployment of emergency units in early 1942, necessitated by the Soviet counterattacks against Army Group Centre, led to the creation of Luftwaffe Field Regiments, and the satisfactory performance of Division Meindl in particular prompted the creation of the first 10 Luftwaffe Field Divisions in September 1942.

Field Divisions

The 10 Field Divisions were widely scattered throughout Russia almost immediately, and despite Goering's personal intention they be used only on quiet fronts for defensive duties were employed in attack roles - notably during the attempt to relieve the Sixth Army at Stalingrad. Some divisions went to form all-Luftwaffe corps while others were assigned to Army formations. Heavy casualty rates and poor performance caused the Air Force and Army both to re-evaluate their necessity, but nonetheless these ground divisions remained on active duty throughout 1942 and into 1943. By the summer of 1943, 22 Field Divisions were in existence, and it was recognized that they were not being employed for their original purpose of security, and were occupying portions of line that regular Army divisions would have occupied - but without much of the same equipment (or training) that those Army divisions would have had. Proposals to reorganize the divisions were not made before their deficiencies were once again showcased by Soviet offensives in the autumn of 1943. Heavy casualties ensued among the Luftwaffe men fighting in several areas, and finally, in November, they were ordered transferred to Army command.

The Army replaced Luftwaffe officers up and down the chain of command in the divisions with Army officers, upgraded equipment and organization to match the standard Model 1944 Army Division, assigned Army post office numbers and redesignated the former Luftwaffe Field Divisions as Field Divisions (Luftwaffe). The reorganizations did not go entirely smoothly; Anti-aircraft battalions never transferred to Army command and were taken from the divisions, and many veteran officers, NCOs and men transferred to other Luftwaffe duties, notably paratroops units.

The beginning of 1944 saw the Field Divisions again suffer heavy casualties defending against Soviet attacks along the front and by the end of the summer of 1944 only two divisions were left in the Soviet Union. They went on to fight with Army Group Kurland, some remnants holding out until May 1945.

It is estimated that 250,000 volunteers joined the Field Divisions in 1942 and 1943, and that 180,000 transferred to Army command in the winter of 1943. Most of these men no doubt became casualties as the divisions were destroyed in 1944. The experiment had been a costly failure; not only in men's lives but also considering the issue of weapons and vehicles had delayed the refitting of Army formations that might have made better use of them.

Paratroops

By June of 1941, the heyday of the German paratroops was over. After thrilling the world by its exploits at Eben Emael in Holland in 1940, the casualties suffered by parachute and glider troops on Crete in the spring of 1941 caused Hitler to forbid their future employment in their intended role. Two divisions of Fallschirmjäger came to be employed in the Soviet Union, as ground troops.

Fallschirmpanzerdivision "Hermann Göring"

The Hermann Göring Division had an extensive history from its beginnings as a battalion in 1935, then regiment, then division, but did not see service on the Eastern Front until August 1944, after which it served extensively in the East, in the central sector until February 1945, and in Poland and East Prussia until the end of hostilities. This division formed the nucleus of an entire panzer corps, but like the Panzer Korps Grossdeutschland, was a corps in name only, most component units coming from the division of the same name. Also like the Grossdeutschland, the HG was considered an elite formation and received first rate equipment and recruits, and was equipped as an armour-heavy panzergrenadier division with two regiments organized identical to Army panzergrenadiers and a full panzer regiment.

Other

In addition to the paratroops and Field Divisions, there were other Air Force ground units to participate in the ground fighting in Russia, including emergency units and penal battalions, as well as the use of anti-aircraft weapons in a ground role, especially "88" units.

Types of Infantry Regiments in the German Military (Eastern Front 1941-1945)

Designation

Dates in Service

Details

Composition

Infantry (Infanterie)

Sep 1939 - Nov 1942

Most common and numerically important type of infantry unit. Generally consisted of 3 infantry battalions, plus support units such as an infantry gun company, anti-tank company and engineer company.

3 regiments per Infantry Division plus support units such as anti-tank, engineer, signals, artillery, anti-aircraft, and assault gun units.

Grenadier

Oct 1942 - May 1945

In October 1942, all Infantry Regiments were redesignated "Grenadier" Regiments, though no actual changes to the establishment of such were made. "Grenadier" was a term used in the army of Frederick the Great; the revival of the term by Hitler (an admirer of Frederick the Great) was considered an honour.

Infantry Divisions retained their designation, but were formed from the newly named Grenadier Regiments. Slight changes during the latter half of the war saw rifle squads reduced in size from 10 men to 9, though the scale of issue of semi-automatic and automatic weapons was increased.

In addition to Infantry Divisions, several other types of division were made from Infantry Regiments - Security Divisions were raised in 1942, and used for garrison duty in occupied territories. In September 1942, Reserve Divisions were formed also, to both train recruits and for garrison duty.

In May 1944, some Grenadier Regiments were reorganized into Grenadier Brigades, later Grenadier Divisions - these were renamed in October as Voksgrenadier Divisions.

Motorized Infantry

(Infanterie (Motoriziert))

Sep 1939 - Oct 1942

A very small selection of infantry regiments were transported by trucks; these were grouped into motorized infantry divisions and not to be confused with the infantry units organic to armoured divisions. They were organized exactly as a standard infantry regiment.

At first three regiments per division, changed in early 1940 to two motorized regiments per division. Motorized Infantry Divisions were redesignated Motorized Grenadier Regiments in late 1942.

Motorized Grenadier

(Grenadier (Motoriziert))

Oct 1942 - Jun 1943

A redesignation of Motorized Infantry regiments occurring in tandem with the designation of Grenadier Regiments (see above).

In the summer of 1943 all Motorized Grenadier Regiments were converted to Panzergrenadier Regiments.

Motorized Rifle

(Schützen)

Sep 1939 - late 1942/1943

Infantry units attached to Panzer (Armoured) divisions were referred to as Schützen regiments. They were motorized with a rare few units having SPW armoured halftracks with the remained in trucks.

As mentioned at left, these were the infantry units organic to Panzer Divisions. Three battalions per Regiment, with 1 regiment per Panzer division.

Armoured Infantry

(Panzergrenadier)

Late 1942 - May 1945

In Nov 1942, the granting of the honour title "Grenadier" was also extended to the motorized infantry of Panzer Divisions, being renamed "Panzergrenadier", as well as the reorganized Motorized Grenadier regiments.

The Panzergrenadier Division was organized with two panzergrenadier regiments and a battalion of tanks for support. The Panzer Divisions also had their organic motorized infantry redesignated as panzergrenadier.

Jäger

(Light Infantry)

28 Jun 1942 - 1945

Originally designated Light Infantry Divisions (leichte Infanterie Division) and formed from infantry regiments, the Jäger Division was formed from redesignated Jäger Regiments.


 

Gebirgsjäger

(Mountain Troops)

1939 - 1945

Troops trained in alpine operations, complete with special skills such as skiing, climbing and rappelling. Lightly equipped, and using special weaponry (i.e. the mountain carbine version of the K98 rifle, pack howitzers, etc.)

Organized into Mountain Divisions, two regiments per division.

Fallschirmjäger

(Paratrooper)

1941 - 1945

Other than commando type raids (such as a landing on Tito's headquarters in Yugoslavia), mass parachute drops were not practiced after the terrible losses suffered on Crete in 1941. Only two parachute divisions fought in the East, both as regular ground troops. Parachute divisions also saw action against the Canadians in Italy and North-West Europe.


 

Jäger Regiment

(Luftwaffe)

1942 - 1943

Each Jäger Regiment had only 2 battalions, with each battalion having an HQ company, 3 rifle companies and a heavy weapons company. The Luftwaffe Field Divisions had about half the strength of an Army Division, with only 4 battalions of infantry as opposed to 9.


 

Jäger Regiment

(Luftwaffe)

1944 - 1945

The new pattern Jäger Regiment had two battalions, each battalion with an HQ company, 3 rifle companies, and a heavy weapons company. The Regiment also had an infantry assault gun company and an anti-tank company.

The new Army pattern Field Divisions (Luftwaffe) had three Jäger regiments plus support units. A Division had a Fusilier battalion added for reconnaissance duties, organized very similarly to a Jäger battalion.

The Italian Military

The Italian Army had been instrumental in implementing the foreign policy of their leader, Benito Mussolini ('Il Duce') almost as soon as he became the youngest national leader in modern Italian history. In 1923 a small force was sent to seize Corfu from the Greeks, though political pressure made him back down. But his dreams of a new Italian empire focused his gaze on other areas of the Mediterranean, the Balkans, and northeastern Africa. An Italian show of force in 1934 thwarted a German attempt at unification with Austria, and diplomatic successes yielded some new territories for Italy in Africa. Minor incidents in Abyssinia in 1934 precipitated the move of some 12 divisions to East Africa, and hostilities were opened against Somalia in October 1935. In May 1936, despite the official disapproval and sanctions of the League of Nations, Italy was victorious. Mussolini further flexed the Army's muscles by sending troops to fight in the Spanish Civil War in 1936. In April 1939, a poorly organized and trained Italian force landed in Albania - up til this time a protectorate of Italy - and seized control.

In the meantime, Italy had been drawn into Germany's sphere of influence, officially joining the Axis with Germany and Japan in May 1939. Mussolini fully realized Italy was unprepared to fight any major wars for several years (after war began in September, optimistic appraisals set the date of Italy's readiness at October 1942 at the earliest), and Hitler never informed his new ally of the attack on Poland. Mussolini, by now convinced of the myth of Italian military might that had been set by his lucky successes of the 1930s, declared war on France and Britain in 1940, choosing to share Germany's destiny.

Mussolini sent a 60,000 man force called the "Italian Expeditionary Corps in Russia" (Corpo Spedzione Italiane in Russia, or CSIR) to participate in Barbarossa, feeling it would bring prestige and material gains to support Germany in this endeavor. This initial corps of three divisions (Pasubio and Torino, both infantry divisions, as well as the 3rd Mobile Division), ostensibly motorized, followed the Germans of Army Group South into the Ukraine, mostly on foot. They were later joined by a Legion of Blackshirts. The CSIR impressed the Germans at first, but the initial high morale brought on by thoughts of an easy campaign (as France had been in 1940) waned as it became apparent the Italian force had neither the leadership, armour, motorized transport or artillery and anti-tank weapons to be able to fight effectively against the Red Army.

Nevertheless, a 2nd Corps was also sent to the Soviet Union in March 1942 (Sforzesca, Ravenna and Cosseria Divisions), as well as an elite Alpine Corps of one infantry and three mountain divisions. More Blackshirt units also were added to the CSIR, now renamed the 35th Corps. This Italian force of 3 Corps eventually numbered over 225,000 men and was grouped to create the 8th Army. In August 1942 it found itself garrisoning the Don front after advancing with Army Group B, to the north of Stalingrad. In December, an expected Soviet counterattack disintegrated the 2nd and 35th Corps, stranding the Alpine troops and creating a large breach in the Don line.

In January 1943 the remnants of the force were assembled in the Ukraine, but the force was returned to Italy by the Germans, with most units having started the return journey in March, with some small units staying behind to fight partisans. The 229,000 man 8th Army left behind 85,000 killed and missing soldiers, and 1,200 of the 1,340 artillery pieces destroyed or abandoned. Also a severe blow for the Italians, for whom sufficient motor transport had always been a sore point, was the loss of 18,200 motorized vehicles out of a total complement of 20,000.

Some historians argue that these forces might have had a larger impact on the outcome of the war had they been sent to North Africa in 1941 instead of being squandered for little apparent purpose in the Soviet Union. Mussolini was ousted in 1943 (to be captured, rescued by German commandos and paratroops, and returned to control of a puppet state in Northern Italy) and the nation formally changed sides, to fight with the Allies.

The Japanese Military

The image of the Japanese soldier perpetuated in post-war accounts of a trained jungle fighter is a false one. Aside from receiving no specialized jungle training, the majority of the Army in the opening months of the war was assigned to China to keep order and face the threat of Soviet attack. The bayonet, however, such as the one brandished here, was a favoured weapon when training in its use in other modern armies had all but vanished.

The image of the Japanese soldier perpetuated in post-war accounts of a trained jungle fighter is a false one. Aside from receiving no specialized jungle training, the majority of the Army in the opening months of the war was assigned to China to keep order and face the threat of Soviet attack. The bayonet, however, such as the one brandished here, was a favoured weapon when training in its use in other modern armies had all but vanished.

While western historians sometimes fail to appreciate the extent to which Germany employed its divisions in the East from 1941 onwards, it is also little appreciated how large Japan's commitment to its war in China was. During the initial campaigns in the Pacific from Dec 1941 into the spring of 1942, only 11 divisions of 55 were employed outside of China. The bulk of Japanese forces (and, generally speaking, the highest quality formations as well as the majority of their relatively small armoured forces) were retained on the Chinese mainland, protecting interests there and safeguarding against a war with the Soviet Union that was felt by the Japanese to be inevitable.

In 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army had 51 divisions (of these, 35 were deployed to China/Manchuria) and various special-purpose artillery, cavalry, anti-aircraft and armoured units with a total of 1,700,000 men. From 1942 soldiers were sent to Hong Kong (23rd Army), the Philippines (14th Army), Thailand (15th Army), Burma (15th Army), Dutch East Indies (16th Army) and Malaya (25th Army). In 1943, the army had grown to 70 divisions, with 42 (including two armoured divisions) deployed to China or Manchuria. In 1944 and early 1945, the army grew to 99 divisions, with 37 stationed in China/Manchuria. In the middle of 1945, 164 (and eventually 174) divisions had been raised, with just 43 serving in China/Manchuria.

Canadian troops would meet Japanese in battle only once, at Hong Kong in Dec 1941 in a campaign notable for the controversial nature of their deployment there as well as the brutality of their enemies both during and after the fighting. Canadian soldiers went to the Aleutian Islands in 1943 to find the Japanese had fled. A Canadian Army Pacific Force also went into training in 1945 after the European war had ended, though the atomic bombings in Aug 1945 ended the war before their deployment. Burdened with second-rate equipment, poorly supplied, and often ill-trained, the Japanese soldier was conditioned in a feudal culture of death, honour and duty that made him a savage opponent and perhaps the only sizeable military force in history to truly come close to "fighting to the last man" in the literal sense of that over-used phrase.

Europe on 22 June 1941.

Military Forces of the Axis Minors

Axis minor powers assisted both the Japanese in Asia and the Germans in Europe and Africa.

The war against the Soviet Union was a massive undertaking for Germany, who was outnumbered from the minute the first Brandenburg commandos started crossing the border on 22 June 1941. Germany relied on the assistance of several nations in Eastern Europe, most notably the Finns, who fought a border war with Russia in 1939-1940, and Romania, who fielded a very large army and also had territorial axes to grind. When it became obvious that the war would not be won quickly, cheaply or easily, Germany turned more and more to other nations and national groups for volunteers, extending across the entire continent. Below is the briefest of overviews of the major Axis participants in the war against the USSR.

Many European nations committed to Hitler's self-professed crusade against communism and "bolshevism", with the foremost thought of earning a favourable place in post-war Europe. By 1944, Germany's allies were crumbling away, again seeking to better their postwar situation with Soviet and Allied victory almost a certainty.

In addition to the armies of their own nations, many European countries (even those not allied with Germany) sent individual volunteers to fight with the German military. The higher numbered Waffen SS divisions, for example, were heavily recruited from throughout eastern (and even western) Europe from 1943 onwards.

In addition to military service (see below under Soviet volunteers), many men from the conquered Soviet territories also served in security and police units behind German lines, many assisting in logistical support as well as taking a very active part in the Final Solution, providing execution squads to augment and assist the German police and "special action" units. On the German home front, untold millions of persons throughout Europe were also pressed into service by the Germans as slave labour.

As early as 1941, the Germans were astonished at the large numbers of Soviet nationals flocking to join the fight against Stalin. Initially, the German need for social order and racial purity did not allow for the recruitment of foreign nationals, or at least not under arms. Units at the front often saw things differently, and even in the first months of the war, when casualties were heavy, and as the war in the East dragged on with even heavier losses, the bizarre racial policies of the Third Reich became more and more irrelevant in comparison to the need to find willing allies. It was not long before official policies were modified or abandoned in favour of arming and equipping an ever-widening array of men from different nationalities, religions, and even races; these changes would see Moslem Bosnians (with the fez as part of their uniform), turbaned Sikhs from India, and asiatic soldiers from the south all serving in German uniform by 1944, for just three examples.

The history of allied forces on the Russian Front can be outlined in five distinct phases:

June 1941 - Spring 1942

The opening of Barbarossa: strong contingents from Romania, Italy and Finland , as well as smaller contingents from Slovakia, Italy and Hungary, make deep advances into the Soviet Union. These contingents were depleted by the spring of 1942, and the Finns flatly refused to advance any farther than their 1939 frontier lines.

Summer 1942 - 1943

German plans for a renewed summer offensive call for increased manpower; in exchange for providing troops, Hungary and Romania demand the right to field independent national formations, and these went into action during the summer offensive. As these forces were over-extended during the advance to Stalingrad, the Soviets took advantage of their weaknesses, and smashed the Romanian forces on the flanks of the 6th Army at Stalingrad, and proceeded to destroy the Italian and Hungarian forces in the region as well.

1943 - early 1944

During 1943, general mistrust of the eastern Allies led to their contingents being sent home, or placed on garrison and coastal duties, where morale sank. The governments of the Axis allies, seeing the writing on the wall, begin to discuss peace with the western Allies. Italy changed sides in September 1943 after Sicily was conquered by the western allies and landings were made in southern Italy.

1944

As the German forces are driven from the Soviet Union and towards the borders of the minor Axis partners, the Romanian, Hungarian and Slovakian armies briefly revitalize and prepare to defend their native territory. The Romanians are once again badly hurt by the Soviets, and change sides. The Slovaks suffered through a failed revolt against the fascist government and an attempt to leave their alliance with Germany. Finland successfully sued for peace in August and the Germans were pushed out of the country.

1945

The final phase of the war in the East saw the Romanians and Finns actively opposed to the Germans, and Slovakia occupied by the Germans, with Hungary still an ally due to a German coup and new fascist government in power.

In 1942, the Axis minor allies had contributed about 25% of the divisions on the Eastern Front operating against the Red Army; their lack of equipment, training, and morale was a serious deficiency that was deftly exploited by the Soviets, though in many cases these armies were able to fight well, especially the Finns who were highly regarded by the Germans and Soviets alike.

In addition, foreign volunteers serving directly in the German forces amounted to 3.07 million men, or 18% of the total strength of Germany's armed forces. From 1 September 1939 to 31 January 1945, their losses were over 85,000 dead, 118,000 wounded and 37,000 missing.

Albania

Albania had been annexed by the Italians in 1939, having originally declared the region an Italian protectorate in 1927. 21. Waffen-Gebirgs-Division der SS Skanderbeg (Albanische Nr. 1) was authorized in April 1944 utilizing Moslem volunteers hailing from Albania and Kosovo, though several thousand sailors of the German Navy were also formed into the new division. Employed on anti-partisan duties in October 1944, the large number of deserters in two months (some 3,500) caused the division to be disbanded. A German cadre of remaining troops were organized into Kampfgruppe Skanderbeg and fought on with the 7th SS Division ("Prinz Eugen"), seeing action in Yugoslavia and according to one source, possibly on the Oder in February 1945.

Belgium

Following German occupation of the country in 1940, one of the two national groups - the Flemish - found themselves favoured by the Germans over the other national group, the Walloons. After the invasion of the Soviet Union, Flemish volunteers wanting to fight communism in the East were permitted to enlist in the Waffen SS while the Walloons would initially only be accepted by the Army.

Flemish

In March 1943, the Volunteer Legion Flandern was reorganized as 6. SS Freiwilligen Sturmbrigade "Langemarck". This unit, composed of Flemish volunteers (with perhaps some Finnish troops as well) saw action in the Ukraine in late 1943, suffered heavy lossed at Zhitomir in early 1944, and after rest and refitting in Czechoslovakia went back into action on the Narva front in July. The remnants withdrew in September 1944 where the unit was expanded to divisional status, known as the 27th Freiwilligen Grenadier Division "Langemarck". (Possibly also with Flämische Nr. 1 suffixing the divisional designation). The division was made up of Flemish soldiers, sailors and airmen, as well as other labour and political groups. One of these groups was the Vlaamse Wacht, a German security unit raised in Flanders who in July 1944 received German uniforms. Some four battalions, or 3,000 men it total, had been intended for defence of Flemish territory but instead the majority went to join the 27th SS Division. The Division saw action in the East from January 1945 onwards, surrendering in May 1945.

Walloon

Walloon Infantry Battalion No. 373, was formed, chiefly from members of the fascist "Rexist" party in Belgium, and was attached to the 100th Jäger Division, fighting its first major battle during the Soviet counter offensive of 1941. Some 300 of the battalion's 600 Belgians managed a successful defensive battle, and though some 30 percent casualties were suffered, the Germans were suitably impressed with their abilities. It remained in the line until March 1942 when its shortages of men caused it to be withdrawn. It saw action again in May, and by July was attached to the German 97th Infantry Division and advanced some 800 km during a single month of the German summer offensive. After hard fighting in the Caucasus, it withdrew to Germany to refit.

By June 1943, the unit was back up to strength and the rapidly expanding Waffen SS accepted the "Legion Wallonie" into its own ranks, expanded, and titled the 5. SS Freiwilligen Sturmbrigade "Wallonien." In late 1943 and early 1944 the brigade distinguished itself fighting alongside the German Wiking SS Division. Only 632 men were fit for duty of the original 2,000 after being cut off in the Tscherkassy Pocket. After rest and refit, the division moved to the Narva front in the spring of 1944, and was upgraded to divisional status by October 1944, becoming the 28th SS Freiwilligen Panzergrenadier Division "Wallonien" including Spanish and French troops as well. The division briefly served in the west, then in early 1945 moved back to the Eastern Front where it was reduced to some 700 men during the fighting in February, March and April.

Bulgaria

Bulgaria had a deep rooted mistrust and fear of Stalin's Soviet Union; their declaration of war on 13 December 1941 was aimed at Britain and America so as not to antagonize the Soviets. Bulgarian fear was not misplaced; Stalin did indeed seek greater influence in that country, which Hitler was able to use to advantage. While Bulgaria did not send troops to fight against Russia, their army did conduct garrison and anti-partisan duties - a role their army conducted with great efficiency. Bulgaria let German troops pass through during the fighting in Yugoslavia and Greece in the spring of 1941, even offering flank protection to German forces fighting the Greeks along the Metaxas Line.

Bulgaria's reward was 50,000 square kilometres of new territory, and Bulgarian troops served in anti-partisan duties in former Greek and Yugoslavian areas such as Macedonia, Thrace and Salonika, as well as spending three years in western Macedonia and Serbia defending German supply lines. The latter areas, annexed officially by Bulgaria in May 1941, were ruthlessly policed, so much so that no partisan movements developed until 1944.

The best troops of the Bulgarian army deployed along the frontier with Turkey (for fear of Turkish intervention on the part of the Allies), while reserve soldiers, mainly, served on security duties and gained a reputation for ill discipline and harsh treatment of civilians. Bulgaria's hatred of the Turks and Greeks made them a politically reliable ally, and though even the best of the Bulgarian army would have been an impediment on the Russian Front, they performed their security duties well. When Tsar Boris III died in 1944, with Soviet forces on Hungary's border, a pro-Allied coup took place in September and Bulgaria switched sides. Morale under the new Soviet command was poor, and Bulgarian forces did not have much success in their new role of harassing the German retreat from Greece and the Aegean. Some Bulgarian forces advanced as far as Austria, linking with British forces shortly after VE Day.

In 41 months of anti-partisan duties, 1,000 soldiers and policemen of a force of 100,000 had been killed. Under the brief period of Soviet command in the last months of the war, the 450,000 man Bulgarian army lost over 30,000 killed, wounded and missing.

Croatia

Croatia was created on 10 April 1941 after the capitulation of the Royal Yugoslavian Army to the Germans. The majority of the Croatian army and several militia groups were used in Bosnia and Herzogovina against Serbian partisans.

A German-Croat Legion served in southern Russia, officially titled the 369th Reinforced Croat Infantry Regiment and performed well against partisans and later the Red Army as it advanced towards Kharkov attached to the German 100th Jäger Division. The unit fought near Stalino during the Soviet counter offensives, and advanced once again with the Sixth Army towards Stalingrad. The Regiment was destroyed in the fighting there, in several locations around the perimeter of the Stalingrad Kessel and also seeing action at the famous Red October plant.

In March 1943, a volunteer division was announced - numbered 369 in honour of the destroyed regiment in Stalingrad. The division was commanded by a German general with many German officers and NCOs, but the rank and file consisted almost entirely of Croatians. The 369th and 370th Infantry Regiments made up the division, with the 369th Artillery Regiment, and though the division was destined for the Soviet Union, it remained in Yugoslavia combating Tito's partisans.

A second division, the 373rd (made up of the 383rd and 384th Infantry Regiments as well as the 373rd Artillery Regiment) was created in late 1943, and a third division numbered 392 (composed of the 846 and 847 Infantry Regiments and 392nd Artillery Regiment) was created in 1944. All three divisions saw action against Tito's partisans until May 1945. One source indicates the 369th was called "Devil's Division," the 373rd was dubbed "Tiger Division" and the 392nd "Blue Division."

An Italian-Croat Blackshirt Legion was also formed, in imitation of the German 369th Regiment. A force of 1,211 men was created, dubbed the Motorized Croation Legion (Legione Croata Autotransportable), and sent into action in April 1942. The Legion performed adequately, but was destroyed with the other units of the 8th Army in December 1942. Some members of the Legion apparently changed sides to fight with the 1st Yugoslav Brigade of the Red Army. An abortive attempt to raise a second legion was made in May 1943.

Croatian men were also conscripted into the 7th SS Division "Prinz Eugen" who gained notoriety during their anti-partisan activities in Yugoslavia. The 13th Waffen SS Division (variously titled "Handschar" and/or "Croatian Number 1") was also recruited from Bosnian Moslems, who were the traditional enemies of the Croatian Serbs from whom Yugoslav partisan leader Tito drew most of his manpower from.

Recruiting began for the 23. Waffen Gebirgs Division der SS "Kama" (Kroatische Nr. 2) in June 1944 but the rapidity of Soviet advances led to an abandonment of this division in September 1944, and the troops went to reinforce other units, with NCOs notably joining the Handschar Division mentioned above.

Croatian security forces of the Ustashi (Fascist) government were extremely brutal and openly genocidal, liquidating any non-Croats in their areas of responsibility, mostly Serbian civilians.

Estonia

Estonia had been occupied by the Soviet Union in 1939 and formally annexed as part of the Soviet Union in 1940. German troops occupied Estonia in 1941 until the country's "liberation" by the Red Army in 1944, and its return to the Soviet Union.

Early Estonian defence forces numbered 13 regional defence units and a rail security force, collectively called the Civil Guard (later Self-Defence Corps). In the autumn of 1941 six Estonian security detachments were raised, and on 1 January 1943, these detachments went to form Estonian Company 657 and Estonian Battalions 658, 659 and 660. They transferred to the Waffen SS in the spring of 1944.

The Germans raised an Estonian Legion in the spring of 1943, designated 3. Estonian SS Volunteer Brigade (3. Estnische SS-Freiwilligen Brigade), went into action at Nevel in the autumn of 1943, and expanded to divisional status in January 1944, becoming 20. Waffen Grenadier Division der SS (Estnische Nr. 1) and utilizing conscripted Estonian Army troops and a cadre from a German SS infantry brigade. The division saw further action at Narva in the spring and summer of 1944, avoided being encircled in Kurland, retreated to Silesia and surrendered to the Red Army in May 1945.

Six Estonian battalions were raised in February 1944 for domestic defence, numbering some 38,000 troops. Four of them with German artillery, divisional support troops and staff formed the Special Purpose Division 300 (Div.zbV 300), also known as the Estonian Frontier Guards Division. Totaling 20,000 men, this formation was in fact the largest Axis unit on the entire Narva front and was given the largest section of front to defend. Divided into two brigades, the division came under heavy attack on 18 September, and was broken up as it retreated, leaving behind small groups to fight it out with the advancing Red Army in the marshy terrain near Lake Peipus.

Finland

Finland had already waged a bitter war with the Russians between Nov 1939 and Mar 1940, and entered into a partnership with Germany, for self-defence, and in the event of war between Germany and Russia, pledging to assist Germany with the sole aim of recovering territory lost in the "Winter War."

The "Continuation War", as the Finns called it, began when the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. Finland was divided into a northern and southern front. In the south, the Finns recovered territory in the Karelian isthmus that had been lost in 1939-40, as well as some smaller new gains in Soviet territory, and halted in September 1941. In the north, aided by German troops, operations were less successful, and the goal of cutting the Murmansk railway was not achieved. By December 1941, when it became apparent that Germany would not achieve ultimate victory that year, the Finns decided to stabilize their front, fearful of heavy losses and economic disruption that would be part and parcel of a long campaign. The Germans were not happy, but realizing that their troops were ill prepared to fight in the northern regions (the German 36th Corps had barely advanced at all on the northern front), could not force the issue. The Finnish front remained static until Jun 1944.

Half a million Red Army troops attacked the Karelian isthmus in Jun 1944, but the Finns managed to stage a fighting withdrawal, with the help of German infantry and assault guns, as well as a Finnish armoured division formed in late 1943. By the end of June, the Finns were once more forced back to the post-1940 frontier, but managed to dig in along that line. All the gains of the Continuation War had been lost. In Aug 1944, Finland concluded an alliance with the Soviet Union, and though some minor skirmishes occurred between Finnish and German troops, the Germans reluctantly pulled their troops out of Finland and into northern Norway.

Finland's army, some 400,000 men, had suffered 55,000 killed during the Second World War, and though economic ruin had been a result, the bravery and skill of the Finnish Army had preserved their sovereignty.

A battalion of Finns also served in the Waffen SS in the Ukraine before being repatriated to the Finnish Army in Jun 1943. The Finnisches Freiwilligen-Bataillon der Waffen-SS served from 1941-43 and consisted of approximately 1,400 soldiers. The unit was recruited as a state sponsored activity in order to receive German support after the experiences of fighting the Red Army alone in the Winter War. Finnish soldiers were unique among Waffen SS volunteers in not swearing an oath of allegiance to Adolf Hitler by name. Once their initial commitment was complete, the Finns returned home with a handful remaining in the SS afterwards. A relatively small proportion of Finns held fascist beliefs and/or endorsed the anti-semetic views of their German allies in comparison to other Axis nations.

France

After the capitulation of France in June 1940, a puppet state known as Vichy France was set up in the southern part of the country, which included also France's North African possessions. The northern part of the country was garrisoned by German forces. France and Germany had fought each other in 1870-71 during the Franco-Prussian War, and of course territory changed hands in 1918, with French troops remaining in the Rhineland on occupation duty long after the conclusion of the Great War.

The French Volunteer Legion (Legion des Voluntaires Francais contre le Bolshevisme, or LVF for short) was raised in 1941, with volunteers coming not from Vichy France but from fascist groups in Paris at about the same time as Belgian volunteers were mobilizing for Germany's war in the East. The LVF was more formally known as the 638th Reinforced Infantry Regiment, consisting of three infantry battalions, the first two of which moved to Russia to join the German 7th Infantry Division in October. The first combat actions took place during the Soviet counter-offensives of 1941-42, and the 2nd battalion was virtually wiped out. The other two battalions were used primarily for anti-partisan work in Army Group Centre after that. A 2nd battalion was not created until late in 1943, when the regiment could once again be reformed as such. Anti-partisan work continued until the summer of 1944 when Soviet offensives again placed the Frenchmen in harm's way. One battle group of some 300 men so impressed the Russians with their defensive fighting abilities that they were mistaken for a force totaling some two divisions.

The shattered remnants of the regiment reformed in East Prussia and on 1 September 1944, despite audible protests from many survivors, the group was merged with the French SS Volunteer Grenadier Regiment (formed in 1943 and also victim of severe casualties in 1944) as well as Frenchmen from other military and paramilitary organizations including the Navy, NSKK and Milice, to form the new Volunteer Assault Brigade "Charlemagne."

On paper, this unit was expanded to divisional strength in February 1945 to become the 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division der Waffen SS "Charlemagne". The division saw extensive combat in the east, and briefly in the west.

Hungary

Hungary, with a long tradition of power as an ally of the Holy Roman Empire, and later member of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, had proudly fought alongside Germany in World War One, and like Germany, was greatly reduced in power after their defeat. Limited to an army of 35,000 men, the Kingdom of Hungary had also been reduced by nearly two-thirds of its territory and population by the 1920 Treaty of Trianon. Hungary therefore had scores to settle, developing close links with Fascist Italy and more reluctantly with Nazi Germany. Rearmament began in earnest in 1939, especially after obtaining southern Slovakia in 1938. Hitler allowed Hungary to take Ruthenia back from the Czechs in March 1939, and in August 1940 Hitler arranged for northern Transylvania to transfer from Romania to Hungary. It is noted that the Germans later found it necessary, once fighting in the Soviet Union, to keep Hungarian and Romanian units as widely seperated from each other as possible, lest they take to fighting each other rather than the Red Army.

The bulk of the Hungarian army deployed to the Carpathians in anticipation of Barbarossa, and sought to gain for itself while offering the Germans a minimum of assistance. During the invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, Hungary managed to regain almost all of the territory lost after World War One, though naturally Yugoslavia was alienated just as Romania had been, and Hungary became very much dependent on German support for national security.

As repayment, Hungary offered assistance to the German forces involved in Barbarossa, and declared war on Russia on 27 June 1941. German and Hungarian officers worked well together at the tactical level; many senior Hungarian officers had experience in the Austrian Army during the First World War, and many Hungarian officers were in fact fluent in German. Hungarian troops were appalled by German policies towards civilians in the Soviet Union, and apparently tried to intervene in some cases (especially where Jews serving in Hungarian labour battalions were singled out for persecution). However, some Hungarian troops did also take part in questionable actions in Yugoslavia in 1941-42.

Hungarian troops did advance into the Ukraine, and across the Dniepr, and despite the very odd mix of horses, bicycles and civilian pattern vehicles, the so-called "Mobile Corps" fought well over a 600 mile advance to reach the Donets basin area - at the cost of 80 percent of its motorized transport and 26,000 casualties.

By the spring of 1942, a 200,000 man Hungarian army was mobilized, moving to defensive positions on the Don during June 1942, and staying there until smashed in a Russian winter offensive in January 1943, leaving behind 50,000 men as prisoners, and losing 30,000 more as casualties. The 2nd Hungarian Army was sent home in March 1943 (Hungary by this point had become what was described as a neutral country, free of rationing or compulsory military service). The 8th Hungarian Corps was the only formation to remain in action on the Eastern Front, and was called the "Dead Army" and consisted mostly of reserve regiments. The Corps was mostly engaged in anti-partisan work, along with many security formations in the Ukraine.

As time passed, Hungarian forces in the Ukraine formed truces with local partisans, again keeping with the theme of gaining for themselves with a minimum of assistance to the Germans. Hungarian troops did not fight at Kursk, nor did they take part in the reduction of the Warsaw uprising, where in fact one artillery unit tried to sell their guns to the insurgents; the Germans stopped this from occurring and understandably demanded the Hungarians be sent elsewhere. Major reorganizations of the entire Hungarian military took place at this time, mid-1943, and Hitler became so worried about Hungary seeking to opt out of the war that German troops were ordered in during March and April of 1944. The Hungarian army was ordered not to resist, but ironically was mobilized fully for the first time during the war at this point.

In August 1944, Romania defected to the Allies, leaving Hungary's flank exposed. Hastily assembled units were moved to Transylvania, but Red Army and Romanian forces crossed the Carpathians and Hungarian units began individually defecting to the Soviets. Hungary proclaimed an armistice on 15 October 1944, but Vice Admiral Horthy, the Regent, was arrested and the Hungarian army was placed under German control directly. By December 1944, now stiffened with German troops, the Hungarian army retreated into Slovenia. Much fighting in Hungary itself raged through the early months of 1945, while a rival Hungarian government was set up by the Soviets and company and battalion sized Hungarian units were integrated into Soviet divisions. The new government promised Stalin 8 divisions - in the end only one was deployed - but the war was over before real combat could be entered into.

Hungary's contribution to the anti-partisan war had also been minimal; five divisions were provided to the Germans, though they were of poor quality. The worst four were put in a minor sentry role, and the remaining division was used for railway security.

Between 136,000 and 148,000 Hungarian soldiers had died in the Second World War, with 50,000 more dying in Soviet captivity.

India

Indian National Army

The Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) served as an auxiliary force under command of the Imperial Japanese Army, composed mainly of Indian prisoners of war originally captured by the Germans, as wellas civilians recruited by the Japanese in Malaya and Burma. The INA's goals were to erode British control of India, a goal the Japanese felt comfortable in supporting with material assistance. Japan had no plans on invading India but desired both a friendly government on the western boundary of their empire, as well as the expulsion of Europeans from the Asian continent.

Indian opposition to British rule was keenly felt, and efforts made by the Italians and Germans to recruit Indians (from among the thousands captured in North Africa) for service against the Allies were reasonably successful. The Italians organized a special commando type unit in May 1942 which included 400 Indians amongs its 1800 personnel. They were not employed in the Soviet Union but in Africa, and mutinied upon hearing of the German defeat at El Alamein. The Indians were returned to their POW camps, though German efforts to recruit them would later be successful also (see below).

The INA was reformed from about 12,000 troops, with from 8,000 to 10,000 other ex-Indian Army personnel being recruited and 18,000 Indian civilians being enlisted. At war's end some 40,000 troops were still under arms. A force of Indians managed to establish a small provisional government in Moirang, Manipur, after a trek via Burma. The INA was defeated within a few months and withdrew into Burma with the British still in contact. The survivors of the INA surrendered at war's end, and their leader, Subhas Chandra Bose, died when his plane crashed as he attempted to flee to the Soviet Union.


(Above): Subhash Chandra Bose, leader of the Indian National Army, with an unidentified German officer.
(Right): German racial sensibilities fell by the wayside as the war grew longer.

Indians in German Service

German recruiting efforts were more successful than that of the Italians; beginning in Jan 1942, from an initial recruitment of 8 volunteers the "Indian National Army" grew to include some 2,000 men by mid 1943 (though not all had "volunteered). On 26 Aug 1942, the Legion Freies Indien became an official unit of the German Army, also referred to as Indisches Infanterie Regiment 950. Some of the regiment's German commissioned officers began to be replaced by Indian officers, newly commissioned after service as German NCOs. The unit was later referred to instead as Panzergrenadier Regiment 950 (Indische) due to its partially motorized status.

While Regiment 950 was composed of men of several religions and nationalities (including Moslems, Hindus, Sikhs, Jats, Rajputs, Marathas and Garhwalis), Indians specifically of the Moslem faith were considered for recruitment into the 13th Waffen SS Division. This division, however, was recruited mainly from Bosnian Moslems and it was not felt that the Indians and Europeans would mix well, so the idea was abandoned.

The Free India Legion/Infantry Regiment 950 was envisioned as a force to be used in German advances through the Caucasus into Iran and India. Small numbers of Indian troops were in fact parachuted into Persia to begin sabotage operations in anticipation of a national revolt against the British. However, the defeat at Stalingrad took attacks into India itself out of the realm of possibility. Small numbers of picked men and officers were taken away for a move to the Far East, while the majority of the Legion moved to the Netherlands for garrison duty, arriving in the spring of 1943 and remaining until September. The cold weather forced a redeployment of the regiment to the south of France, where the unit was inspected by Field Marshall Rommel (responsible for the original capture of most of these troops when they served against him in North Africa) in April 1944. In August 1944, the 2,300 man Legion was transferred - with all German Army national legions - to the Waffen SS and being retitled Indische Freiwilligen Legion der Waffen SS. On the same day that the Allies landed in southern France, the Indian Legion was moved to Germany. The first death in combat occurred during fighting with French troops in September as the unit moved back through France to Germany on foot.

The Legion remained in Germany until Mar 1945, eventually seeking sanctuary in neutral Swiss territory by attempting to march around Lake Constance to gain entry to Switzerland via alpine pass, but the Legion was captured by allied troops. Some were shot by French troops, the rest were turned over to the British, who shipped them back to India, where they were dealt with leniently.

Latvia

Latvia was an authoritarian state in the 1930s; when Germany and the Soviet Union formed an alliance in August 1939, the nation was occupied by the Soviets, and formally annexed the next year. In the ensuing year some 35,000 Latvians were killed, deported or forced to flee the country.

After the German invasion of the Soviet Union, of which Latvia was technically a part, Latvia created several security formations to help protect the German rear areas, known as "Schuma-Battaillone." In early 1943 some of these battalions were formed into a Latvian SS Volunteer Legion (Lettische SS Freiwilligen Legion), later redesignated a Brigade. In November 1943 this brigade went into action on the Nevel line, and in early 1944 was expanded to become 15th Waffen Grenadier Division der SS (Lettische Nr. 1). The unit fought at Narva in the summer of 1944, refitted late in the year, and suffered many losses in Danzig in 1945. Parts of the division escaped to the west to surrender to the US. Of all Baltic forces fighting for the Germans, the 15th SS Division is said to have the best fighting record. A scond division, titled 19th Waffen Grenadier Division der SS (Lettische Nr. 2) was formed in early 1944, also from Latvian security troops, and fought on the Baltic Coast and Kurland before surrendering at Mitau in May 1945.

As the German Army retreated into the Baltic area in early 1944, autonomous governments were allowed to take power in Estonia and Latvia to allow men of draft age to be called up for national service. The Germans raised several Grenzshutz Regiments (Border Guard Regiments) in February 1944. Six of these 2,700 man strong Latvian regiments were sent to the front immediately, at first as a battle group and later parcelled out to German divisions. They were horribly mauled and disbanded between July and September 1944, some survivors going to the 19th SS Division mentioned above.

In all some 450,000 Latvians died in the Second World War, and 175,000 more would die or be deported in the four years following the war, and the return to Stalinist rule.

Lithuania

Lithuania, who had also been annexed by the Soviet Union in the same fashion as Estonia and Latvia, made no direct contribution to the ground war against the Soviet Union other than the formation of construction battalions.

The Netherlands

While much has been written about the operations of the Dutch resistance after the country's collapse in 1940, as well as free units such as the Princess Irene Brigade, a significant number of Dutch men actively collaborated with the Germans, including service in the German armed forces. In 1941, about 3 percent of adult males belonged to the national socialist NSB party.

Approximately 20,000 to 25,000 Dutch served in both the German Army and the Waffen SS, including formations such as 4.SS-Freiwilligen-Panzergrenadier-Brigade Nederland and Landstorm Nederland, seeing combat almost exclusively on the Eastern Front. Dutch troops played a brief part in fighting during Operation MARKET GARDEN in Sep 1944, and some Dutch troops saw action at Groningen.

Romania

Romania had fought with the Allies in the Great War, victory bringing with it control of Bessarabia and Transylvania, both regions of which were heavily populated by ethnic Romanians. (The term Romania is preferred by the oft-used spelling Rumania; the Romanian people popularly saw themselves as the Latins of Eastern Europe.) Other ethnics did live in these regions, however, and the Soviet Union and Hungary both felt resentment towards the loss of territory in these regions. Romania opted for a defensive attitude between the wars, choosing to seek alliance with France, Czechoslovakia and Poland.

By 1940, Romania's allies had been defeated militarily by Germany, and Romania in turn was forced to surrender much territory to the USSR, Hungary and Bulgaria. Dependent on Germany's favour for its continued existence, Romania officially joined the Axis on 23 Nov 1940

While a member of the Axis, Romania maintained the third largest army to serve against the Soviets in eastern Europe, and in 1944-45 fielded the fourth largest army of all the Western Allies, after the USSR, US, and UK (putting some 538,000 troops into the field against the Axis). One of Romania's main war aims, similar to that of Finland, was the restoration of territory lost in 1940.

The territorial losses of 1940 reduced the manpower pool for the armed forces from 2,200,000 to 1,500,000, causing some disbandments of the recently re-armed and expanded active army. After territory in Transylvania, Bessarabia and northern Bucovina were liberated from the Soviets, the manpower pool was increased, though shortages of weapons did not allow these manpower boosts to be translated directly into new field formations.

Romania's war leader (holding the title Conducator (Leader)) was General Armata Ion Antonescu, who suppressed an attempted coup on the current coalition government in January 1941 and remained in power until overthrown in August 1944. The Army itself suffered from a lack of NCOs; mass expansion of the Army during the war diluted the NCO corps and limited education and training only allowed for a minimum of competency among many. The peasantry that contributed most of the rank and file were also ill-educated, not well trained, and ill-equipped. The Army was expanded from a total of 130,000 men under arms in 1937 to 686,000 at the start of Barbarossa. Even this total was doubled by June 1944.

The Romanian Army desired full mechanization, but the single Ford motor plant in the nation could only produce some 10 vehicles a day; 1938 saw only 34,000 motor vehicles in the entire nation with 10,000 of them being trucks. Horseflesh remained the main method of transport for artillery and equipment; some 525,000 horses were lost between 1941 and 1944 (from a national total of 1, 268,000 equines.) The Romanians also used a variety of armour from French, Czech and German sources, as well as captured Soviet types.

Romanian involvement in the anti-partisan war was limited; two divisions did security duty in Romanian occupied portions of the Ukraine, where there was little partisan activity in any event.

Some 54,000 Romanian-born Germans also served in the SS and 15,000 more in the German Army and Organization Todt, with 6,000 Romanian-speaking soldiers serving directly in the German forces also.

Romania had been tyhe largest ally Germany had on the Russian Front between June 1941 and August 1944, and had been generally effective, inflicting punishment on the Soviets in equal measure for punishment taken until Stalingrad. A high proportion of Romania's 1.8 million man army saw action in the Soviet Union. Some 71,000 Romanians were killed fighting the Soviet Union, with 234,000 wounded and 310,000 missing, most of whom were killed in action or as POWs.

Serbia

Serbia was officially an occupied zone, but did raise a limited number of security troops. The only reliable anti-partisan force, the "Serbian Volunteer Command", was absorbed en masse into the Waffen SS in October 1944. Other forces raised in Serbia only saw limited duty in guard and security roles.

Slovakia

Slovakia had belonged to Hungary before 1918; after Hitler took control of Czechoslovakia, he forced the Slovaks to split from the Czechs by threatening to turn them back to the Hungarians. On 14 March 1939, Slovakia officially split from Czechoslovakia, to enjoy the only real period of independence in their history. The Premier of the new state, a Catholic priest and fascist named Jozef Tiso, set up a model satellite patterned after their German masters, with a fascist government ruled by one party, and a state militia modelled after Germany's SA (Sturm Abteilung - Storm Troopers). Slovakia's army inherited Czech equipment and Czech officers, and by the time war erupted in Poland in 1939, the fledgling army assisted Germany, with two divisions occupying territory they claimed was theirs.

Slovakia, still mindful of Hungarian take over, were among the first to join what Tiso called "the crusade against Bolshevism." A Slovak Army Corps of two divisions joined the German Army Group South in the earliest days of the invasion of the Soviet Union. In August 1941, Slovak forces were reorganized, with the two divisions going on to serve seperately under German operational control in different regions of the southern front. The year 1943 saw more reorganizations, and as morale among the Slovaks began to wane, requests to relocate to the west were refused. After throwing Slovak units into the line after a breakthrough, without first getting approval from higher Slovak headquarters, the reliability of Slovak troops plunged, and in 1944 they were disarmed and converted into Construction Brigades, serving in Romania, Hungary and Italy. Two other divisions organizing to defend the Carpathians in light of Russian advances westward were disbanded by the Germans after an uprising in August 1944. The uprising was put down by the Germans, with 3,000 resistance fighters killed and 10,000 more captured. In early 1945, with Tiso still in power supported by the state militia, all ethnic Germans serving in the Slovak Army were transferred to the Wehrmacht in exchange for German troops of Slovak ethnicity.

Soviet Volunteers

Life in the Soviet Union was notably hard, with various ethnic groups being treated especially poorly by the Stalin government in Moscow. The Soviet Union was not an ethnically homogenous peoples and many large groups such as the Ukrainians actually felt the Soviet government (dominated by the Russians) to be an occupying power, and that they were living under occupation by foreigners. For that reason, many so called "Soviets" actually looked upon the German invaders in June of 1941 as liberators. Also, many people in disputed border areas felt more allegiance to Poland, Romania or other nations rather than to either the Soviets or the Germans. If a person from Poland is different historically and ethnically from a person in Spain, the difference is just as great between a Russian from Moscow and a Ukrainian from Kiev.

The Germans were unprepared for the number of willing volunteers they would encounter in the East; some estimates cite a number of 1.5 million people working for the Germans in some capacity (enough to fill the ranks of three Army Groups) though other sources say only 800,000. Many of these served in local security or police formations, but two important categories of volunteers are relevant to this discussion.

Hilfswilliger (Auxiliary Volunteers)

The first category is only of passing interest - the Hilfswilliger (Volunteer Helper, or Auxiliary Volunteer) also known as "Hiws" were numerically very important to the day to day operations of the vast German armies in the Soviet Union, though their direct influence on combat operations was minimal. Nonetheless, several hundred thousand Soviet soldiers (and beginning in October 1944, officially, Polish volunteers as well) came to serve with the Germans. Initially they were not to be given weapons or uniforms, and they performed mostly service functions such as driving, cooking, or as medical orderlies - though by providing these services many Germans were freed for combat roles. The official sanction bestowed by Hitler in 1942 to the use of Hiwis also gave rise to better conditions of pay, uniform and treatment. Hiwis were eventually granted permission to wear German uniform, and some small numbers of Hiwis may even have been employed in combat roles - some Divisions began using entire Hiwi companies in the front line. Mainly, however, the Hiwis served in impressive numbers throughout the German Army in the east, but they performed these roles as individuals, not as formed units. As such, their impact on the fighting in any tactical sense was negligible.

Ostruppen (Eastern Troops)

The second, more important, category, however, is the Osttruppen; armed volunteers from the former Soviet states that fought alongside the German Army as formed units. The majority of Ostbataillonen (East Battalions) were formed from non-Russians such as Balts, Caucasians, Cossacks, and Ukrainians. In November 1941, six battalions were organized by Army Group Centre, offically titled Osttruppen (Eastern Troops). The German High Command acquiesced and authorized further battalions, on the condition that they not number more than 200 men per battalion and were employed solely for security purposes. Eventually the battalions came to number 950 men each, with a cadre of 36 German officers, NCOs and men.

By the summer of 1942, Osttruppen were employed all over Russia and official regulations attempted to set out orders of dress and rules for the use of German uniform and standardized insignia. In August 1942, Hitler lifted most of the restrictions that had previously applied to the raising of Eastern Troops, primarily in response to an increase in partisan activity behind German lines in the Soviet Union. As the number of units grew, an Inspectorate of Eastern Troops was created in December 1942 (later redesignated the Inspectorate of Volunteer Troops in January 1944) charged with supervising the units, with actual tactical command belonging to the German units to whom the Eastern Troops were attached. Each Army and Army Group also had a headquarters staff to handle the Osttruppen, and an officers training academy for Eastern officers was established in Lithuania. Eventually some 71 battalions came to serve in the East.

In early 1943, the Eastern volunteers throughout the German Army (some 48 battalions, plus independent companies and individual Hiwis - but excluding specifically the three Estonian battalions) began to be referred to as the Russkaia Osvoditelnaia Armiia (Russian Liberation Army, abbreviated ROA). The designation was semantic only, the units were never formed as an army and remained subordinate to German formations throughout the German Army.

Attempts by some Germans to have the ROA units disbanded were thwarted when the Inspectorate was able to show some 427,000 Eastern volunteers were on the rolls, enough to man 30 German divisions. These troops were mostly employed in rear areas performing security and construction tasks, and the severe mistrust of these Slavic troops led to widespread transfers to Western Europe or occupied territory in Eastern Europe. The officers' academy in Lithuania transferred to France, and some 42 further battalions - refugees of destroyed German divisions - were transferred to Western Europe. Having originally enlisted to fight communism, many of these eastern troops mutinied, or refused to fight when the western Allies landed in France in June of 1944.

Many of the Eastern Troops also resented the title ROA, having enlisted to free their own territories from Russian rule. The Ukrainians even began to refer to a Ukrainske Vyzvolne Viysko (Ukrainian Liberation Army, or UVV) though this title was applied to the scattered companies and battalions of Ukrainian volunteers throughout the German Army, and like the ROA designation, did not actually refer to a single formed body but rather collectively to the widely dispersed individual units.

In November 1944, the ROA was redesignated VS-KONR (Armed Forces of the Committee for the Liberation of the Russian Peoples), and remained 50,000 strong, but the older ROA designation stayed in common use until May 1945. The 1st Infantry (600th German) Division was formed in December 1944, fought briefly on the Oder in April 1945, then switched sides to help liberate Prague from German rule. The 2nd (650th German) and 3rd (599th German) Divisions were never fully formed.

Cossacks

Other Eastern units included the 1st Cossack Division, which had its genesis in Aug 1941, when the entire 436th Infantry Regiment of the Red Army defected to the Germans and were labelled Cossack Battalion 102 by the Germans, then Eastern Cossack Battalion 600, and finally as 5th Don Cossack Regiment. Many smaller Cossack units were also utilized by German rear area units for anti-partisan work, and Hitler personally authorized further recruitment of Cossack squadrons for security purposes in April 1942. The 5th Don Cossack Regiment had such good results in its fighting aganst the partisans that further Cossack units were raised, finally numbering two brigades (six regiments) and designated 1st Cossack Division in the spring of 1943. It comprised a German cadre, two Don, one Siberian, one Kuban and two Terek cavalry regiments, an artillery regiment, and support troops.

In the autumn of 1943 the Division was ordered to go to Yugoslavia to fight Tito's partisans, and were employed in Croatia as part of LXIX Corps from October 1943 until transfer to the Waffen SS in November 1944. The transfer was on paper only, and the troops retained their Army uniforms and were never considered members of the Waffen SS proper. The division was divided into two, with the 1st and 2nd Cossack Divisions forming the 14th Cossack Cavalry Corps. Not until the Red Army invaded Yugoslavia did the division have a chance to fight regular Red Army troops. The division is notable for a reputation of ruthlessness among the civilian population.

Other Cossack units included nine independent infantry battalions and 19 cavalry battalions, which were assigned to German divisions thoughout the various Army Groups in the east.

Cossack soldier. Soldier of the ROA.

Ostlegionen (Eastern Legions)

Finally, some 98 Eastern Legion battalions were formed beginning late in 1941 with the creation of the 444th Turkoman Battalion and the 444th Caucasian Battalion as part of the German Security Division 444. The Turkomen was a name used by the Germans to describe all Asiatic peoples living between the Volga and the Asian steppes, while Caucasians referred to peoples living on both sides of the Caucasus mountains in the southern Soviet Union. In December 1941, the German High Command authorized the raising of several legions, and in 1942 the disbanded 162nd Infantry Division staff in occupied Poland trained battalions of Armenian, Azerbaijan, Georgian, North Caucasian, Volga-Tartar and Turkestan legions.

Eventually, some 98 legions were raised, some 79 served in the Balkans and the Soviet Union between 1942 and 1945. Official policy was not to group these legions, but employ them individually, and scattered throughout the German forces. Twelve of these did transfer to the west during 1943-44.

Additionally, many labour, service, depot and security units were formed that were used in German rear areas. All told, at least some 175,000 men joined the various Legions.

Local Militias

The Byelorussian Self-Defence Corps expanded to 55,000 members on paper, though wide dispersion did not allow for concentration of force greater than battalion strength in most instances. A Ukrainian Self Defence Corps numbered some 180,000, with several other militias in the region also. The Sumy Militia, for example, fought with distinction against both the Red Army and partisans in the northeastern sector of Ukraine.

Spain

Germany had committed troops and equipment to the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939, and the victor of that war - Francisco Franco - was sympathetic to the Axis cause. While not in a position to provide military guarantees to Germany, especially given the economic condition of Spain and its recovery from the civil war, Franco nonetheless was able to help Germany and maintain neutrality by allowing Spanish volunteers to fight alongside Germany. On the same day that Germany launched Barbarossa, Spain offered help and on 24 Jun 1941, Hitler approved the commitment of Spanish volunteers to the fighting in the East. In this way, Spain repaid Germany for her support by recruiting over 18,000 men for the 250th Infantry Division (dubbed The Blue Division). At first only 4,000 men were required, but the overwhelming response prompted the raising of an entire division.

Three regiments were formed (the 262nd from Barcelona recruits, the 263rd from Valencia and the 269th from Seville), as well as an artillery regiment, and enough pilots were present to form a squadron of fighters. Flying Me 109s and later Fw 190s, this Blue Squadron accounted for 156 Soviet kills during its service on the Russian Front.

The Spanish volunteers were mainly inexperienced other ranks with a core of NCOs and officers who were veterans of the Civil War and of fighting in Morocco in the 1920s; the men trained briefly in Germany, swore an oath before Hitler, and then marched to the front near Smolensk, where they were rerouted to the Leningrad front. The march to the front lasted from 29 August 1941 and ended on October 6th, with the division moving some 780 km in 24 march days (the division rested on the other days), or some 32.5 km a day average; on 9 September alone the division marched a total of 51 km. They first saw action in October 1941 when the II Battalion of the 269th Regiment relieved units of the German 126th Infantry Division. The division stayed on the Volkhov Front until relieved and transferred to the Leningrad Front in August 1942 (though the same II/269 remained on the front until September, attached to 20th Motorized Division. The Division remained on the Leningrad front for the remainder of their time in Russia. Reinforcements were volunteers until late 1943 when limited conscription may have provided some small numbers of guripas (the contemporary Spanish word for soldiers, used as the American GI or German Landser); it is possible that as many as 45,000 men rotated through the division, with 4,500 of them being killed.

Allied pressure compelled Franco to withdraw the division, and this occurred in October 1943 with the majority of the Division being repatriated. A Blue Legion remained in the Soviet Union, attached to the German 121st Infantry Division. This small force of over 2100 men consisted of two infantry battalions and a mixed battalion; numbering fewer than the 4,500 men desired by the Germans and more than the 1,500 favoured by the Spanish government, and consisted of many men from the 27th Mar Battalion which had arrived in Russia too late to serve with the Blue Division, though many veterans were also in the ranks. This Legion was also withdrawn in Mar 1944. Some individuals refused to leave, and small Spanish subunits were attached to several German formations of both the Waffen SS and Army.

Sweden

While Sweden was officially neutral, its neutrality was rather anti-Allied at the start of Barbarossa, and Swedish iron ore still fuelled the German war armaments industry, in addition to other business dealings. Sweden permitted the movement of the German 163rd Infantry Division through its territory, enroute to Finland from Norway, fully realizing the division would probably be employed against the USSR. Some 10 percent of the Finnish Army, moreover, spoke Swedish, and though officially the Swedish government was not happy about the situation, one battalion of Swedish nationals actually served as a volunteer unit of the Finnish Army, opposite the Soviet base at Hangö.

United Kingdom

Despite recruiting efforts among tens of thousands of British and Commonwealth prisoners of war, only a handful of men - some devoted Fascists, some opportunists, and others near-idiots - volunteered for the Waffen SS. Never numbering more than a few dozen men, some 20 men were actually attached to the 11th SS Division in Mar and Apr of 1945, while the division was posted to a quiet section of the Eastern Front. One or two men of the British Free Corps, as the English SS unit was known, may have fought and died as individual combatants in Berlin. However, when the 11th SS Division was ordered to the capital, the BFC as a unit was deliberately excluded, and saw no action by the time the war ended. Some ringleaders were hanged by the British after the war, others pardoned, with the majority serving prison terms. By way of comparison, SS records only list five Americans as having served with the Waffen SS, and despite myths to the contrary, no formed unit of American SS men was ever created.

Other Reading:

  • Weale, Adrian. Hitler's Englishmen.

Notes

  1. Culled from a variety of sources, special thanks to the knowledgeable and generous posters at the Battlefront discussion board for their contributions - direct and indirect - to this introduction to a broad and complex topic, as well as Fernando J. Carrera who assisted with the Spanish information.

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