History

Wars & Campaigns

Boer War
First World War

►►Western Front

►►►Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

►►Allied Offensive: 1916

►►►Allied Offensives: 1917

►►►German Offensive: 1918

►►►Advance to Victory: 1918

►►Siberia
Second World War
►►War Against Japan

►►Italian Campaign

►►►Sicily

►►►Southern Italy

►►►The Sangro and Moro

►►►Battles of the FSSF

►►►Cassino

►►►Liri Valley

►►►Advance to Florence

►►►Gothic Line

►►►Winter Lines
►►North-West Europe

►►►Normandy
►►►Southern France
►►►Channel Ports

►►►Scheldt
►►►Nijmegen Salient

►►►Rhineland

►►►Final Phase
Korean War
Cold War
Gulf War

Operations 

GAUNTLET Aug 1941

(Spitsbergen)

HUSKY Jul 1943

 (Sicily)

COTTAGE Aug 1943

 (Kiska)

TIMBERWOLF Oct 1943

(Italy)

OVERLORD Jun 1944

(Normandy)

VERITABLE Feb 1945

(Rhineland)

Battle Honours

Boer War

►Paardeberg

18 Feb 00

First World War
Western Front
Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

Ypres, 1915

22 Apr-25 May 15

Gravenstafel

22-23 Apr 15

St. Julien

24 Apr-4 May 15

Frezenberg

8-13 May 15

Bellewaarde

24-25 May 15

Festubert, 1915

15-25 May 15

Mount Sorrel

2-13 Jun 16

Allied Offensive: 1916

►Somme, 1916

1 Jul-18 Nov 16

►Albert

.1-13 Jul 16

►Razentin

.14-17 Jul 16

►Pozieres

.23 Jul-3 Sep 16

►Guillemont

.3-6 Sep 16

►Ginchy

.9 Sep 16

►Flers-Courcelette

.15-22 Sep 16

►Thiepval

.26-29 Sep 16

►Le Transloy

. 1-18 Oct 16

►Ancre Heights

1 Oct-11 Nov 16

►Ancre, 1916

13-18 Nov 16

Allied Offensives: 1917

►Arras 1917

8 Apr-4 May 17

Vimy, 1917

.9-14 Apr 17

Arleux

28-29 Apr 17

►Scarpe, 1917

.3-4 May17

►Hill 70

.15-25 Aug 17

►Messines, 1917

.7-14 Jun 17

►Ypres, 1917

..31 Jul-10 Nov 17

►Pilckem

31 Jul-2 Aug 17

►Langemarck, 1917

.16-18 Aug 17

►Menin Road

.20-25 Sep 17

►Polygon Wood

26 Sep-3 Oct 17

►Broodseinde

.4 Oct 17

►Poelcapelle

.9 Oct 17

►Passchendaele

.12 Oct 17

►Cambrai, 1917

20 Nov-3 Dec 17

German Offensive: 1918

►Somme, 1918

.21 Mar-5 Apr 18

►St. Quentin

.21-23 Mar 18

►Bapaume, 1918

.24-25 Mar 18

►Rosieres

.26-27 Mar 18

►Avre

.4 Apr 18

►Lys

.9-29 Apr 18

►Estaires

.9-11 Apr 18

►Messines, 1918

.10-11 Apr 18

►Bailleul

.13-15 Apr 18

►Kemmel

.17-19 Apr 18

Advance to Victory: 1918

Amiens

8-11 Aug 18

►Arras, 1918

.26 Aug-3 Sep 18

►Scarpe, 1918

26-30 Aug 18.

►Drocourt-Queant

.2-3 Sep 18

►Hindenburg Line

.12 Sep-9 Oct 18

►Canal du Nord

.27 Sep-2 Oct 18

►St. Quentin Canal .29 Sep-2 Oct 18
►Epehy

3-5 Oct 18

►Ypres, 1918

.8-9 Oct 18

►Valenciennes

.1-2 Nov 18

►Sambre

.4 Nov 18

►Pursuit to Mons .28 Sep-11Nov

Second World War

War Against Japan

South-East Asia

Hong Kong

 8-25 Dec 41

Italian Campaign

Battle of Sicily

Landing in Sicily 

   9-12 Jul 43

Grammichele 

15 Jul 43

Piazza Armerina

16-17 Jul 43

Valguarnera

17-19 Jul 43

Assoro 

  20-22 Jul 43

Leonforte

 21-22 Jul 43

Agira

24-28 Jul 43

Adrano 

29 Jul-7 Aug 43

Catenanuova

29-30 Jul 43

Regalbuto

29 Jul-3 Aug 43

Centuripe

  31 Jul-3 Aug 43

Troina Valley

 2-6 Aug 43

Pursuit to Messina

 2-17 Aug 43

 Southern Italy

Landing at Reggio

 3 Sep 43

Potenza 19-20 Sep 43
Motta Montecorvino 1-3 Oct 43
Termoli 3-6 Oct 43
Monte San Marco 6-7 Oct 43
Gambatesa 7-8 Oct 43
Campobasso 11-14 Oct 43
Baranello 17-18 Oct 43
Colle d'Anchise 22-24 Oct 43
Torella 24-27 Oct 43

The Sangro and Moro

The Sangro

19 Nov-3 Dec 43

Castel di Sangro

.23-24 Nov 43

The Moro

5-7 Dec 43

San Leonardo

8-9 Dec 43

The Gully

..10-19 Dec 43

Casa Berardi

 ..14-15 Dec 43

Ortona

20-28 Dec 43

San Nicola-San

.31 Dec 43

Tommaso

.
Point 59/ 29 Dec 43-

Torre Mucchia

4 Jan 44

Battles of the FSSF
Monte Camino

.5 Nov-9 Dec 43

Monte la Difensa-

2-8 Dec 43

 Monte la Remetanea

.
Hill 720

25 Dec 43

Monte Majo

3-8 Jan 44.

Radicosa

4 Jan 44

Monte Vischiataro

8 Jan 44

Anzio

22 Jan-22 May 44

Rome

.22 May-4 Jun 44

Advance

.22 May-22 Jun 44

to the Tiber

.
►Monte Arrestino

25 May 44

►Rocca Massima

27 May 44

►Colle Ferro

2 Jun 44

Cassino
►Cassino II

11-18 May 44

►Gustav Line

11-18 May 44

►Sant' Angelo in

13 May 44

Teodice

.
►Pignataro

14-15 May 44

Liri Valley
Liri Valley

18-30 May 44

►Hitler Line

18-24 May 44

►Aquino

18-24 May 44

►Melfa Crossing

24-25 May 44

►Ceprano

26-27 May 44

►Torrice Crossroads

30 May 44

Advance to Florence
►Advance

17 Jul-10 Aug 44

to Florence

.
►Cerrone

25 - 31 Aug 44

Trasimene Line
►Trasimene Line

20-30 Jun 44

►Sanfatucchio

20-21 Jun 44

►Gabbiano

1 Jul 44

►Arezzo

4-17 Jul 44

►Tuori

5 Jul 44

Gothic Line
►Gothic Line

25 Aug-22 Sep 44

►Monteciccardo

27-28 Aug 44

►Montecchio

30-31 Aug 44

►Point 204 (Pozzo Alto)

31 Aug 44

►Monte Luro

1 Sep 44

►Borgo Santa Maria

1 Sep 44

►Tomba di Pesaro

1-2 Sep 44

►Coriano

3-15 Sep 44

►Lamone Crossing

2-13 Sep 44

Winter Lines
►Rimini Line

14-21 Sep 44

►San Martino-

14-18 Sep 44

San Lorenzo

.
►San Fortunato

18-20 Sep 44

►Casale

23-25 Sep 44

►Sant' Angelo

11-15 Sep 44

 in Salute

.
►Bulgaria Village

13-14 Sep 44

►Cesena

15-20 Sep 44

►Pisciatello

16-19 Sep 44

►Savio Bridgehead

20-23 Sep 44

►Monte La Pieve

13-19 Oct 44

►Monte Spaduro

19-24 Oct 44

►Monte San Bartolo

11-14 Nov 44

►Capture of Ravenna

3-4 Dec 44

►Naviglio Canal

12-15 Dec 44

►Fosso Vecchio

16-18 Dec 44

►Fosso Munio

19-21 Dec 44

►Conventello-

2-6 Jan 45

Comacchio

.
►Granarolo

3-5 Jan 44

Northwest Europe
Dieppe

19 Aug 42

Battle of Normandy
Normandy Landing

6 Jun 44

Authie

7 Jun 44

Putot-en-Bessin

8 Jun 44

Bretteville

8-9 Jun 44

       -l'Orgueilleuse .
Le Mesnil-Patry

11 Jun 44

Carpiquet

4-5 Jul 44

Caen

4-18 Jul 44

The Orne (Buron)

8-9 Jul 44

Bourguébus Ridge

18-23 Jul 44

Faubourg-de-

18-19 Jul 44

       Vaucelles .
St. André-sur-Orne

19-23 Jul 44

Maltôt

22-23 Jul 44

Verrières Ridge-Tilly--

25 Jul 44

         la-Campagne .
►Falaise

7-22 Aug 44

►Falaise Road

7-9 Aug 44

►Quesnay Road

10-11 Aug 44

Clair Tizon

11-13 Aug 44

►The Laison

14-17 Aug 44

►Chambois

18-22 Aug 44

►St. Lambert-sur-

19-22 Aug 44

       Dives

.

►Dives Crossing

17-20 Aug 44

Forêt de la Londe

27-29 Aug 44

The Seine, 1944

25-28 Aug 44

Southern France
Southern France

15-28 Aug 44

Channel Ports
Dunkirk, 1944

8-15 Sep 44

Le Havre

1-12 Sep 44

Moerbrugge

8-10 Sep 44

Moerkerke

13-14 Sep 44

Boulogne, 1944

17-22 Sep 44

Calais, 1944

25 Sep-1 Oct 44

Wyneghem

21-22 Sep 44

Antwerp-Turnhout

   24-29 Sep 44

Canal

.

The Scheldt

The Scheldt

1 Oct-8 Nov 44

Leopold Canal

6-16 Oct-44

►Savojaards Platt

9-10 Oct 44

Breskens Pocket

11 Oct -3 Nov 44

►Woensdrecht

1-27 Oct 44

►The Lower Maas

20 Oct -7 Nov 44

►South Beveland

 24-31 Oct 44

Walcheren

31 Oct -4 Nov 44

Causeway

.

Nijmegen Salient
Ardennes

Dec 44-Jan 45

Kapelsche Veer

31 Dec 44-

.

21Jan 45

The Roer

16-31 Jan 45

Rhineland
The Rhineland

8 Feb-10 Mar 45

►The Reichswald

8-13 Feb 45

►Waal Flats

8-15 Feb 45

►Moyland Wood

14-21 Feb 45

►Goch-Calcar Road

19-21 Feb 45

►The Hochwald

26 Feb-

.

4 Mar 45

►Veen

6-10 Mar 45

►Xanten

8-9 Mar 45

Final Phase
The Rhine

23 Mar-1 Apr 45

►Emmerich-Hoch

28 Mar-1 Apr 45

Elten

.
►Twente Canal

2-4 Apr 45

Zutphen

6-8 Apr 45

Deventer

8-11 Apr 45

Arnhem, 1945

12-14 Apr 45

Apeldoorn

11-17 Apr 45

Groningen

13-16 Apr 45

Friesoythe

14 Apr 45

►Ijselmeer

15-18 Apr 45

Küsten Canal

17-24 Apr 45

Wagenborgen

21-23 Apr 45

Delfzijl Pocket

23 Apr-2 May 45

Leer

28-29 Apr 45

Bad Zwischenahn

23 Apr-4 May 45

Oldenburg

27 Apr-5 May 45

Korean War
Kapyong

21-25 Apr 51

Domestic Missions

FLQ Crisis

International Missions

ICCS            Vietnam 1973

MFO                 Sinai 1986-

Peacekeeping

UNMOGIP

India 1948-1979

UNTSO

 Israel 1948-    ....

UNEF

Egypt 1956-1967

UNOGIL

Lebanon 1958    ....

ONUC

 Congo 1960-1964

UNYOM

Yemen 1963-1964

UNTEA

W. N. Guinea 1963-1964

UNIFCYP

 Cyprus 1964-    ....

DOMREP

D. Republic 1965-1966

UNIPOM

Kashmir 1965-1966

UNEFME

Egypt 1973-1979

UNDOF

Golan 1974-    ....

UNIFIL

 Lebanon 1978    ....

UNGOMAP

Afghanistan 1988-90

UNIIMOG

Iran-Iraq 1988-1991

UNTAG

Namibia 1989-1990

ONUCA

C. America 1989-1992

UNIKOM

Kuwait 1991    ....

MINURSO

W. Sahara 1991    ....

ONUSAL

El Salvador 1991    ....

UNAMIC

Cambodia 1991-1992

UNAVEM II

Angola 1991-1997

UNPROFOR

Yugosla. 1992-1995

UNTAC

Cambodia 1992-1993

UNOSOM

Somalia 1992-1993

ONUMOZ

Mozambiq. 1993-1994

UNOMUR

 Rwanda 1993    ....

UNAMIR

Rwanda 1993-1996

UNMIH

Haiti 1993-1996

UNMIBH

Bosnia/Herz.1993-1996

UNMOP

Prevlaka 1996-2001

UNSMIH

Haiti 1996-1997

MINUGUA

Guatemala 1994-1997

UNTMIH

Haiti 1997    ....

MIPONUH

 Haiti 1997    ....

MINURCA

C.Afr.Rep. 1998-1999

INTERFET

E. Timor 1999-2000

UNAMSIL

Sie. Leone 1999-2005

UNTAET

E. Timor 1999-2000

Exercises

 

Moerbrugge

Moerbrugge was a Battle Honour granted to Canadian units participating in actions near this town from 8 Sep 1944 to 10 Sep 1944, as part of the overall battle to clear the Channel Ports.

Overview

The 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division, free of the close-in terrain and high force concentrations in Normandy, enjoyed a long advance from Normandy into Belgium alongside the British 2nd Army in the opening weeks of Sep 1944. On 6 Sep, the division was organized into two battle groups: STEWART Force and MONCEL Force and tasked with pursuing the retreating German armies; the Canadians were to advance on Eeklo, a town northwest of Ghent while the divisional recce unit, the 12th Manitoba Dragoons, was to reconnoiter the coast.

With Antwerp having fallen to the British, the Canadians were optimistic that German resistance was crumbling and had been effectively routed. Staff officers at First Canadian Army headquarters realized, however, that the Germans had designated positions on the Scheldt Estuary as fortresses. Antwerp's port would be useless to the Allies until the Scheldt could be cleared. The ease with with the Manitoba Dragoons took Nieuport and Ostend gave the Canadians a false indication of German organization in the Scheldt area.


Reckless optimism was certainly the mood at Major-General Harry Foster’s divisional headquarters when orders were issued to seize a crossing of the Ghent Canal at Moerbrugge. At the time, artillery was only available on call due to an ammunition shortage. It is also worth noting that there was no time for reconnaissance and that no assault boats were available. With Brigadier J.C. Jefferson in hospital, suffering from a recurrence of malaria, Lt.-Col. Dave Stewart of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada was in command and he selected his own battalion to make the crossing.1

STEWART Force (two battalions of the 10th Infantry Brigade) was tasked with crossing the Ghent Canal about five kilometers south of Bruges at a small village called Oostkamp. Directly across the canal from Oostkamp, which was about 20 metres wide and very deep, was another village named Moerbrugge.


Opposition was not expected and The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada were chosen to make the assault. Two batteries of the 15th Field Regiment, RCA were placed in support, though ammunition was not available in large quantities and supporting fire was provided on an on call basis, with no prepatory fires planned.

The 29th Armoured Recce Regiment (South Alberta Regiment) also sited its Sherman Tanks on the friendly side of the canal to cover the crossing. Vickers Guns of The New Brunswick Rangers were also sited to provide cover. Ammunition was also low for the 3-Inch Mortars of the Argyll's Mortar Platoon, and for the 4.2-Inch Mortars of the New Brunswick Rangers.

"A" Company of the Argylls, Argyll Scout and Sniper Platoon, and one squadron of the SAR were moved to a point north of the crossing to provide a diversion and to test German defences.

The Argylls, under command of the Deputy Commanding Officer Major B. Stockloser, ordered "B", "C", and "D" companies to cross the canal but had not arranged for assault boats stating that the operation would be "a crossing of opportunity". The companies moved to Oostkamp at 1530hrs on the 8th, where two civilian boats were found by the OC of "D" Company, Major Mackenzie. The boats ferried all three companies over the canal, though the crossing was contested by mortar and artillery fire. Major Mackenzie was wounded, with his "D" Company being driven to the bank of the canal by German counter-attacks, with "C" Company cut off by German infiltrators. "C" Company lost 17 of 63 men in two hours, but by midnight a bridgehead had been created by all three companies at the cost of 5 dead and 26 wounded.

German Forces

The Canadian assault came at the junction of Infanterie Division 711 and Infanterie Division 245.

9 September

The Lincoln and Welland Regiment crossed the canal on the 9th to secure the right flank of the Argylls, facing several German counter-attacks. "C" Company remained cut off, as well as out of contact due to failed wireless sets. Company Sergeant Major George Mitchell managed to lead an ammunition party forward - an act for which he was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal.

One Bren Gunner, Lance Corporal L.A. Webb, inflicted an estimated 15 to 20 casualties on German soldiers in a matter of a few minutes during one counter-attack, despite enemy machinegun and 20mm fire. Despite heavy losses, the German counterattacks managed to overrun an entire platoon of Argylls, killing their platoon commander.

Engineers found it difficult to bridge the canal, owing to heavy shelling and mortar fire, and had to ferry ammunition across by boat. Supporting fire increased as 25-pounder ammunition became available.

At 1400hrs, "A" Company and the Scout and Sniper Platoon of the Argylls rejoined the main action, taking up positions on the friendly side of the canal. Enemy pressure created a fear that the six companies in the bridgehead might need to be evacuated.

At 1500 hours the Argylls' CO, Lieutenant Colonel Stewart, returned to the unit and was placed in charge of the crossing by the brigade commander. At 1900hrs an intense German mortar barrage fell in support of another counter-attack, which was also beaten off, though bridge construction was again delayed by the fire. Canadian counter-battery fire managed to suppress German artillery and mortar positions by midnight; the casualty total for the 9th included 7 Argylls killed, 22 wounded, and 12 captured.

10 September

A Bailey Bridge was completed by the morning of 10 Sep, allowing tanks of the SAR to establish contact with "C" Company of the Argylls. Approximately 150 captured Germans were sent back across the canal. The Germans suffered 700 casualties at Moerbrugge, with twenty 20mm FlaK guns and six 81-mm mortars also captured.

The struggle for Moerbrugge continued for three days, drawing in the Lincoln and Welland Regiment who put all four rifle companies across the canal to support the Argylls. Supplies were the real problem and the men carried double loads of ammunition into battle.2

The fighting was heavy and in the end, the Germans broke contact and withdrew behind the Leopold Canal.

At the end of the three days, The Algonquin Regiment, as part of MONCEL Force, crossed the Ghent canal as well, for their own attack on Moerkerke and an attempt to cross the Leopold; a major water obstacle that would be very problematic for Canadians in the days ahead.

Battle Honours

The following Canadian units were awarded the Battle Honour "Moerbrugge" for participation in these actions:

Image:4gif.gif 4th Canadian Division

  • 29th Canadian Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment (The South Alberta Regiment)

  • The New Brunswick Rangers

Image:4gif10bde.gif 10th Canadian Infantry Brigade

  • The Lincoln and Welland Regiment

  • The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada (Princess Louise's)

 

Notes

  1. Copp, Terry. "The Liberation of Belgium", article in Legion Magazine published in November/December 2000.
  2. Copp, Ibid.

References

  • Maps adapted from Graves, Donald E. South Alberta: A Canadian Regiment at War (Robin Brass Studios, Toronto, AB, 1998)

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