History

Wars & Campaigns

Boer War
First World War

►►Western Front

►►►Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

►►Allied Offensive: 1916

►►►Allied Offensives: 1917

►►►German Offensive: 1918

►►►Advance to Victory: 1918

►►Siberia
Second World War
►►War Against Japan

►►Italian Campaign

►►►Sicily

►►►Southern Italy

►►►The Sangro and Moro

►►►Battles of the FSSF

►►►Cassino

►►►Liri Valley

►►►Advance to Florence

►►►Gothic Line

►►►Winter Lines
►►North-West Europe

►►►Normandy
►►►Southern France
►►►Channel Ports

►►►Scheldt
►►►Nijmegen Salient

►►►Rhineland

►►►Final Phase
Korean War
Cold War
Gulf War

Operations 

GAUNTLET Aug 1941

(Spitsbergen)

HUSKY Jul 1943

 (Sicily)

COTTAGE Aug 1943

 (Kiska)

TIMBERWOLF Oct 1943

(Italy)

OVERLORD Jun 1944

(Normandy)

VERITABLE Feb 1945

(Rhineland)

Battle Honours

Boer War

►Paardeberg

18 Feb 00

First World War
Western Front
Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

Ypres, 1915

22 Apr-25 May 15

Gravenstafel

22-23 Apr 15

St. Julien

24 Apr-4 May 15

Frezenberg

8-13 May 15

Bellewaarde

24-25 May 15

Festubert, 1915

15-25 May 15

Mount Sorrel

2-13 Jun 16

Allied Offensive: 1916

►Somme, 1916

1 Jul-18 Nov 16

►Albert

.1-13 Jul 16

►Razentin

.14-17 Jul 16

►Pozieres

.23 Jul-3 Sep 16

►Guillemont

.3-6 Sep 16

►Ginchy

.9 Sep 16

►Flers-Courcelette

.15-22 Sep 16

►Thiepval

.26-29 Sep 16

►Le Transloy

. 1-18 Oct 16

►Ancre Heights

1 Oct-11 Nov 16

►Ancre, 1916

13-18 Nov 16

Allied Offensives: 1917

►Arras 1917

8 Apr-4 May 17

Vimy, 1917

.9-14 Apr 17

Arleux

28-29 Apr 17

►Scarpe, 1917

.3-4 May17

►Hill 70

.15-25 Aug 17

►Messines, 1917

.7-14 Jun 17

►Ypres, 1917

..31 Jul-10 Nov 17

►Pilckem

31 Jul-2 Aug 17

►Langemarck, 1917

.16-18 Aug 17

►Menin Road

.20-25 Sep 17

►Polygon Wood

26 Sep-3 Oct 17

►Broodseinde

.4 Oct 17

►Poelcapelle

.9 Oct 17

►Passchendaele

.12 Oct 17

►Cambrai, 1917

20 Nov-3 Dec 17

German Offensive: 1918

►Somme, 1918

.21 Mar-5 Apr 18

►St. Quentin

.21-23 Mar 18

►Bapaume, 1918

.24-25 Mar 18

►Rosieres

.26-27 Mar 18

►Avre

.4 Apr 18

►Lys

.9-29 Apr 18

►Estaires

.9-11 Apr 18

►Messines, 1918

.10-11 Apr 18

►Bailleul

.13-15 Apr 18

►Kemmel

.17-19 Apr 18

Advance to Victory: 1918

Amiens

8-11 Aug 18

►Arras, 1918

.26 Aug-3 Sep 18

►Scarpe, 1918

26-30 Aug 18.

►Drocourt-Queant

.2-3 Sep 18

►Hindenburg Line

.12 Sep-9 Oct 18

►Canal du Nord

.27 Sep-2 Oct 18

►St. Quentin Canal .29 Sep-2 Oct 18
►Epehy

3-5 Oct 18

►Ypres, 1918

.8-9 Oct 18

►Valenciennes

.1-2 Nov 18

►Sambre

.4 Nov 18

►Pursuit to Mons .28 Sep-11Nov

Second World War

War Against Japan

South-East Asia

Hong Kong

 8-25 Dec 41

Italian Campaign

Battle of Sicily

Landing in Sicily 

   9-12 Jul 43

Grammichele 

15 Jul 43

Piazza Armerina

16-17 Jul 43

Valguarnera

17-19 Jul 43

Assoro 

  20-22 Jul 43

Leonforte

 21-22 Jul 43

Agira

24-28 Jul 43

Adrano 

29 Jul-7 Aug 43

Catenanuova

29-30 Jul 43

Regalbuto

29 Jul-3 Aug 43

Centuripe

  31 Jul-3 Aug 43

Troina Valley

 2-6 Aug 43

Pursuit to Messina

 2-17 Aug 43

 Southern Italy

Landing at Reggio

 3 Sep 43

Potenza 19-20 Sep 43
Motta Montecorvino 1-3 Oct 43
Termoli 3-6 Oct 43
Monte San Marco 6-7 Oct 43
Gambatesa 7-8 Oct 43
Campobasso 11-14 Oct 43
Baranello 17-18 Oct 43
Colle d'Anchise 22-24 Oct 43
Torella 24-27 Oct 43

The Sangro and Moro

The Sangro

19 Nov-3 Dec 43

Castel di Sangro

.23-24 Nov 43

The Moro

5-7 Dec 43

San Leonardo

8-9 Dec 43

The Gully

..10-19 Dec 43

Casa Berardi

 ..14-15 Dec 43

Ortona

20-28 Dec 43

San Nicola-San

.31 Dec 43

Tommaso

.
Point 59/ 29 Dec 43-

Torre Mucchia

4 Jan 44

Battles of the FSSF
Monte Camino

.5 Nov-9 Dec 43

Monte la Difensa-

2-8 Dec 43

 Monte la Remetanea

.
Hill 720

25 Dec 43

Monte Majo

3-8 Jan 44.

Radicosa

4 Jan 44

Monte Vischiataro

8 Jan 44

Anzio

22 Jan-22 May 44

Rome

.22 May-4 Jun 44

Advance

.22 May-22 Jun 44

to the Tiber

.
►Monte Arrestino

25 May 44

►Rocca Massima

27 May 44

►Colle Ferro

2 Jun 44

Cassino
►Cassino II

11-18 May 44

►Gustav Line

11-18 May 44

►Sant' Angelo in

13 May 44

Teodice

.
►Pignataro

14-15 May 44

Liri Valley
Liri Valley

18-30 May 44

►Hitler Line

18-24 May 44

►Aquino

18-24 May 44

►Melfa Crossing

24-25 May 44

►Ceprano

26-27 May 44

►Torrice Crossroads

30 May 44

Advance to Florence
►Advance

17 Jul-10 Aug 44

to Florence

.
►Cerrone

25 - 31 Aug 44

Trasimene Line
►Trasimene Line

20-30 Jun 44

►Sanfatucchio

20-21 Jun 44

►Gabbiano

1 Jul 44

►Arezzo

4-17 Jul 44

►Tuori

5 Jul 44

Gothic Line
►Gothic Line

25 Aug-22 Sep 44

►Monteciccardo

27-28 Aug 44

►Montecchio

30-31 Aug 44

►Point 204 (Pozzo Alto)

31 Aug 44

►Monte Luro

1 Sep 44

►Borgo Santa Maria

1 Sep 44

►Tomba di Pesaro

1-2 Sep 44

►Coriano

3-15 Sep 44

►Lamone Crossing

2-13 Sep 44

Winter Lines
►Rimini Line

14-21 Sep 44

►San Martino-

14-18 Sep 44

San Lorenzo

.
►San Fortunato

18-20 Sep 44

►Casale

23-25 Sep 44

►Sant' Angelo

11-15 Sep 44

 in Salute

.
►Bulgaria Village

13-14 Sep 44

►Cesena

15-20 Sep 44

►Pisciatello

16-19 Sep 44

►Savio Bridgehead

20-23 Sep 44

►Monte La Pieve

13-19 Oct 44

►Monte Spaduro

19-24 Oct 44

►Monte San Bartolo

11-14 Nov 44

►Capture of Ravenna

3-4 Dec 44

►Naviglio Canal

12-15 Dec 44

►Fosso Vecchio

16-18 Dec 44

►Fosso Munio

19-21 Dec 44

►Conventello-

2-6 Jan 45

Comacchio

.
►Granarolo

3-5 Jan 44

Northwest Europe
Dieppe

19 Aug 42

Battle of Normandy
Normandy Landing

6 Jun 44

Authie

7 Jun 44

Putot-en-Bessin

8 Jun 44

Bretteville

8-9 Jun 44

       -l'Orgueilleuse .
Le Mesnil-Patry

11 Jun 44

Carpiquet

4-5 Jul 44

Caen

4-18 Jul 44

The Orne (Buron)

8-9 Jul 44

Bourguébus Ridge

18-23 Jul 44

Faubourg-de-

18-19 Jul 44

       Vaucelles .
St. André-sur-Orne

19-23 Jul 44

Maltôt

22-23 Jul 44

Verrières Ridge-Tilly--

25 Jul 44

         la-Campagne .
►Falaise

7-22 Aug 44

►Falaise Road

7-9 Aug 44

►Quesnay Road

10-11 Aug 44

Clair Tizon

11-13 Aug 44

►The Laison

14-17 Aug 44

►Chambois

18-22 Aug 44

►St. Lambert-sur-

19-22 Aug 44

       Dives

.

►Dives Crossing

17-20 Aug 44

Forêt de la Londe

27-29 Aug 44

The Seine, 1944

25-28 Aug 44

Southern France
Southern France

15-28 Aug 44

Channel Ports
Dunkirk, 1944

8-15 Sep 44

Le Havre

1-12 Sep 44

Moerbrugge

8-10 Sep 44

Moerkerke

13-14 Sep 44

Boulogne, 1944

17-22 Sep 44

Calais, 1944

25 Sep-1 Oct 44

Wyneghem

21-22 Sep 44

Antwerp-Turnhout

   24-29 Sep 44

Canal

.

The Scheldt

The Scheldt

1 Oct-8 Nov 44

Leopold Canal

6-16 Oct-44

►Savojaards Platt

9-10 Oct 44

Breskens Pocket

11 Oct -3 Nov 44

►Woensdrecht

1-27 Oct 44

►The Lower Maas

20 Oct -7 Nov 44

►South Beveland

 24-31 Oct 44

Walcheren

31 Oct -4 Nov 44

Causeway

.

Nijmegen Salient
Ardennes

Dec 44-Jan 45

Kapelsche Veer

31 Dec 44-

.

21Jan 45

The Roer

16-31 Jan 45

Rhineland
The Rhineland

8 Feb-10 Mar 45

►The Reichswald

8-13 Feb 45

►Waal Flats

8-15 Feb 45

►Moyland Wood

14-21 Feb 45

►Goch-Calcar Road

19-21 Feb 45

►The Hochwald

26 Feb-

.

4 Mar 45

►Veen

6-10 Mar 45

►Xanten

8-9 Mar 45

Final Phase
The Rhine

23 Mar-1 Apr 45

►Emmerich-Hoch

28 Mar-1 Apr 45

Elten

.
►Twente Canal

2-4 Apr 45

Zutphen

6-8 Apr 45

Deventer

8-11 Apr 45

Arnhem, 1945

12-14 Apr 45

Apeldoorn

11-17 Apr 45

Groningen

13-16 Apr 45

Friesoythe

14 Apr 45

►Ijselmeer

15-18 Apr 45

Küsten Canal

17-24 Apr 45

Wagenborgen

21-23 Apr 45

Delfzijl Pocket

23 Apr-2 May 45

Leer

28-29 Apr 45

Bad Zwischenahn

23 Apr-4 May 45

Oldenburg

27 Apr-5 May 45

Korean War
Kapyong

21-25 Apr 51

Domestic Missions

FLQ Crisis

International Missions

ICCS            Vietnam 1973

MFO                 Sinai 1986-

Peacekeeping

UNMOGIP

India 1948-1979

UNTSO

 Israel 1948-    ....

UNEF

Egypt 1956-1967

UNOGIL

Lebanon 1958    ....

ONUC

 Congo 1960-1964

UNYOM

Yemen 1963-1964

UNTEA

W. N. Guinea 1963-1964

UNIFCYP

 Cyprus 1964-    ....

DOMREP

D. Republic 1965-1966

UNIPOM

Kashmir 1965-1966

UNEFME

Egypt 1973-1979

UNDOF

Golan 1974-    ....

UNIFIL

 Lebanon 1978    ....

UNGOMAP

Afghanistan 1988-90

UNIIMOG

Iran-Iraq 1988-1991

UNTAG

Namibia 1989-1990

ONUCA

C. America 1989-1992

UNIKOM

Kuwait 1991    ....

MINURSO

W. Sahara 1991    ....

ONUSAL

El Salvador 1991    ....

UNAMIC

Cambodia 1991-1992

UNAVEM II

Angola 1991-1997

UNPROFOR

Yugosla. 1992-1995

UNTAC

Cambodia 1992-1993

UNOSOM

Somalia 1992-1993

ONUMOZ

Mozambiq. 1993-1994

UNOMUR

 Rwanda 1993    ....

UNAMIR

Rwanda 1993-1996

UNMIH

Haiti 1993-1996

UNMIBH

Bosnia/Herz.1993-1996

UNMOP

Prevlaka 1996-2001

UNSMIH

Haiti 1996-1997

MINUGUA

Guatemala 1994-1997

UNTMIH

Haiti 1997    ....

MIPONUH

 Haiti 1997    ....

MINURCA

C.Afr.Rep. 1998-1999

INTERFET

E. Timor 1999-2000

UNAMSIL

Sie. Leone 1999-2005

UNTAET

E. Timor 1999-2000

Exercises

 

Peacekeeping

Peacekeeping refers to a unique type of military endeavour, first referred to as such in the latter half of the 20th Century. Some historians have traced the roots of peacekeeping to the 5th Century BC, when Greek city states of the Delian League banded forces together to jointly police the Aegean Sea. Similar concepts can be seen in medieval times when the Vatican sought to impose the "Truce of God". Ideas, rather than actions, were put forward in the 1700s as well.

The clearest precedent for present-day peacekeeping, however, probably lies in the arrangements the defunct League of Nations made to monitor the plebiscite that returned the Saar to Germany in 1935. Some 3,200 troops from Britain, Italy, Sweden and the Netherlands, together with a police contingent, were sent in under the command of a British general - but wearing their normal uniforms - to preserve law and order while the citizens of the Saar determined their future. Though the word peacekeeping was not yet in vogue, the force was described as "a peace force, not a fighting force," and was ordered to exercise strict impartiality. As with modern-day peacekeeping operations, the soldiers sought to avoid force, cooperated closely with the civilian authorities, and relied on high-visibility patrolling to maintain order.1

Early missions were observer missions; the first true peacekeeping mission was the United Nations Emergency Force established in 1956. This mission had a lasting impact on Canadian history, according to Dr. Jack Granatstein:

Pearson's Nobel Prize (awarded for his role in creating the force) made Canadians into the world's leading believers in peacekeeping. Every world crisis after 1956 saw Canadians demanding that their troops bring peace to the world. This pressure literally forced the Diefenbaker government to send peacekeepers to Lebanon in 1958 and to the Congo in 1960-1964. Second, Egyptian complaints about the Queen's Own Rifles marked the first time that many Canadians realized that the army's British-pattern uniforms and regimental names might send an unintended message. The seeds of the unification of the armed forces and a distinctive Canadian military uniform may have been sown in November 1956. Finally, Pearson's interest in a distinctive Canadian flag, one without a Union Jack, began to grow. Suez was part of Canada's belated coming of age.2

From 1947 to the 1990s, Canada could claim to have participated in every single major international peace support mission. The list below will show that the number of missions increased dramatically in the 1990s and the pace could not be maintained. A DND document published in Apr 1998 entitled Canada's Army: We Stand on Guard for Thee described the Army's own vision of itself:

The fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, coupled with the pressing requirement to bring under control an ever-increasing national debt, resulted in a shift in national priorities for Canadians. Although planned allocations for defence were drastically cut and Canadian Forces in Germany withdrawn, the number and scale of Canadian Forces operations actually intensified. This was in large measure due to increasing conflict and instability in various parts of the world which resulted in the army being committed to a number of new international peace support operations. Although Canada ended its long standing UN battalion commitment to Cyprus in 1993, new and more demanding missions quickly replaced it. Thus, despite diminishing resources, Canadian soldiers found themselves serving in Somalia, Cambodia, Afghanistan, former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Haiti and a number of other areas of conflict. At one point, over 2,200 Canadian soldiers out of a regular army establishment of 20,000 were deployed on UN operations, with some soldiers completing one mission only immediately to begin another. At the same time, the army became a force of "veterans," a large proportion of soldiers witnessing combat firsthand in Bosnia, and on a scale unknown to the army since the Korean War.3

According to Dr. Granatstein, when the Cold War ended and multiple conflicts began to wage in Eastern Europe, "the peacekeeping industry was the only growth sector in (the Canadian Forces') small and declining economy." The Army itself has maintained that its raison d'etre has not been for peace missions, but for war training.

Early Canadian advocates of peacekeeping...neglected the fact that the armed forces, and especially the army leadership, disliked the duty. Manpower was always scarce, as far as the army was concerned, and peacekeeping took trained soldiers and softened them up with doing good. The army's main task, as its leaders saw it, was to be prepared to fight the Soviet Union in Central Europe. Its training and its doctrine all looked to that future war. Peacekeeping was a distraction, plain and simple. This view might have been, and likely was, shortsighted for the army leadership, but it existed.4

Peacekeeping was not only done under the auspices of the United Nations, and Canada performed peacekeeping missions under the direction of other coalitions or alliances such as NATO; they are described in the article on International Missions.

United Nations Peacekeeping and Observer Missions of the 20th Century

Peacekeeping

#

Designation

Title

Dates

Canadian Participation

1

INTERFET

International Force in East Timor (Provided assistance to the United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET), which Canada provided 3 police officers and 26 election specialists to.)

1999-2000

Operation TOUCAN: 1 reinforced infantry company, two transport aircraft, 1 supply ship. Peak strength 650 CF personnel.

2

MINURCA

United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic

1998–2000

Peak of over 80 CF personnel.

3

MINURSO

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara

1991-

Operation PYTHON, a maximum of 35 CF personnel from May 1991-Jun 1994.

4

MIPONUH

United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti

1997–2000

Operation COMPLIMENT - six Bisons, plus driving instructors, vehicle techs, military police and staff officers.

5

ONUC

United Nations Operation in the Congo

1960-1964

Approx 300 servicemen at a time, 1,900 total.

6

UNAMSIL

United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone

1999–2005

Operation REPTILE (originally 5 observers from Nov 1999).

7

UNCRO

United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation

1994–1996


 

8

UNDOF

United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (Israel/Syria)

1974-

Operation DANACA.

9

UNEF I, UNEFME (aka UNEF II)

United Nations Emergency Force and United Nations Emergency Force, Middle East

1956-67 and 1973-1979

Up to 1,007 personnel during UNEF, 1,145 during UNEFME.

10

UNFICYP

United Nations Forces in Cyprus

1964-

Operation SNOWGOOSE, approximately 500+ personnel at any time from 1964-1993, staff officers thereafter.

11

UNIFIL

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon

1978

110+ (mainly signals) personnel.

12

UNMIBH

United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina

1995–2000

2 CF personnel.

13

UNMIH

United Nations Mission in Haiti

1993–1996

Up to 500 CF personnel and 100 civilian police.

14

UNMIK

United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo

1999-2002

Operation QUADRANT. Individual CF officers tasked.

15

UNPREDEP

United Nations Preventive Deployment Force

1995–1999

1 observer.

16

UNPROFOR

United Nations Protection Force (Croatia)

1992-1995

Operation HARMONY, peak of approximately 1,600 CF personnel.

17

UNPSG

United Nations Civilian Police Support Group

1998

None.

18

UNSMIH

United Nations Support Mission in Haiti

1996–1997

Operations STANDARD and STABLE, up to 750 CF personnel.

19

UNTAC

United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia

1992-1993

Operations MARQUIS 1 and MARQUIS 2. Peak of 215 CF personnel.

20

UNTAES

United Nations Transitional Authority in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium

1996–1998

None.

21

UNTAET

United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor

2000

Operation TOUCAN - reinforced infantry company from INTERFET.

22

UNTAG

United Nations Transition Assistance Group (Namibia)

1989-1990

Operation MATADOR, 300 CF personnel and 100 RCMP.

23

UNTEA/UNSF

United Nations Temporary Executive Authority/United Nations Security Force (West New Guinea, Indonesia)

1962-1963

Two aircraft, one observer.

24

UNTMIH

United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti

1997

Operation CONSTABLE, up to 650 personnel.

Observer Missions

#

Designation

Title

Dates

Canadian Participation

1

DOMREP

Mission in the Dominican Republic

1965-1966

1 observer.

2

MINUGUA

United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala

1997

Operation VISION (15 observers plus civilian police).

3

MONUA

United Nations Observer Mission in Angola

1997–1999

None.

4

ONUCA

United Nations Observer Group in Central America

1989-1992

Operation SULTAN - 8 helicopters up to 174 personnel.

5

ONUMOZ

United Nations Operation in Mozambique

1992–1994

Operation CONSONANCE - up to 4 observers in 1993-94.

6

ONUSAL

United Nations Observer Mission In El Salvador

1991-

Up to 55 CF personnel in phase I (Operation MATCH), 11 observers in phase II to Aug 1994.

7

UNAMIC

United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia

1991-1992

Up to 7 observers.

8

UNAVEM I, II, III

United Nations Angola Verification Mission

1989-1991 and 1991-1995 and 1995-1997

UNAVEM I and III - none.
UNAVEM II - 15 observers (Operation PASTEL).

9

UNCI

United Nations Commission for Indonesia (originally called Committee of Good Offices 1947-1948)

1947-1951

None.

10

UNGOMAP

United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan

1988-1990

5 observers

11

UNIIMOG

United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group

1988-1991

Operation VAGABOND, up to 525 personnel.

12

UNIKOM

United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observer Mission

1991-2003

523 engineer personnel in total 1991-1993

13

UNIPOM

United Nations India-Pakistan Observer Mission

1965-66

6 aircraft

14

UNMOGIP

United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan

1949-

Up to 39 military observers at any time 1949-1979. Also aircraft support until 1996.

15

UNMOP

United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka

1996–2002

Operation CHAPERON (1 CF officer assigned until end of Sep 2001).

16

UNMOT

United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan

1994–2000

None.

17

UNOGIL

United Nations Observer Group in Lebanon

1958

77 individuals.

18

UNOMIG

United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia

1993-

None.

19

UNOMSIL

United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone

1998–1999

None.

20

UNAMIR

United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda

1993–1996

Up to 112 CF personnel at any one time.

21

UNASOG

United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group

1994

None.

22

UNOMIL

United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia

1993–1997

1 retired BGen participated in technical recce of mission, otherwise None.

23

UNOMUR

United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda

1993–1994

3 observers.

24

UNOSOM I, II

United Nations Operation in Somalia

1992-1993 and 1993–1995

UNOSOM I: Operation CORDON, advance party and headquarters staff.

UNOSOM II: Operation CONSORT, up to 9 CF members including headquarters staff and officers, until 1994.

25

UNSCOB

United Nations Commission for the Balkans

1947-1952

None.

26

UNTSO

United Nations Truce Supervisory Organization (Middle East)

1948-

20 officers (13 officers from 1993).

27

UNYOM

United Nations Yemen Observation Mission

1963-1964

4 aircraft.

Timeline of 20th Century Peacekeeping Missions with Canadian Participation

Notes

  1. Lewis, Paul. "A Short History of United Nations Peacekeeping" Military History Quarterly Volume 5, Number 1 (Military History Quarterly, Inc., New York, NY, 1992) p.35

  2. Granatstein, Jack Canada's Army: Waging War and Keeping the Peace (University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON, 2002) ISBN 0802046916 p.347

  3. Canada's Army: We Stand on Guard for Thee Department of National Defence publication B-GL-300-000/FP-000 pp.25-26

  4. Granatstein, Ibid, p.392

 

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